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Eddy Current

Eddy Current

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Published by Sreedhar Patnaik.M

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Sreedhar Patnaik.M on Oct 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/13/2015

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Guidelines for Shop Inspection Eddy Current
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Guidelines for Shop Inspection – Eddy Current
EDDY CURRENT
Eddy Current Theory – Principles..............................................................................................2Current flow in DC circuits....................................................................................................2Electromagnetic induction......................................................................................................2Eddy Current Theory – Applications.........................................................................................6Surface crack detection..........................................................................................................6Non-ferrous metal sorting......................................................................................................6Sub-surface crack/corrosion detection...................................................................................6In-line inspection of Steel tubing...........................................................................................7Ferrous weld inspection.........................................................................................................7Instrument set-up....................................................................................................................7Rate filtering...........................................................................................................................8Eddy Current Theory - Instrumentation.....................................................................................9Special purpose equipment:...................................................................................................9"Crack detectors"....................................................................................................................9Portable impedance plane eddy current flaw detectors..........................................................9"Systems" eddy current units.................................................................................................9Meter/CRT instruments..........................................................................................................9Eddy Current Theory - Testing................................................................................................11Simple coil above a metal surface........................................................................................11Factors affecting eddy current response...............................................................................12Material conductivity...........................................................................................................12Permeability.........................................................................................................................12Frequency.............................................................................................................................13Geometry..............................................................................................................................13Proximity / Lift-off...............................................................................................................13Depth of penetration.............................................................................................................13The impedance plane............................................................................................................15Coil configurations...............................................................................................................16Typical coil connections.......................................................................................................18
 
Guidelines for Shop Inspection Eddy Current
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Guidelines for Shop Inspection – Eddy Current
Eddy Current Theory – Principles
Current flow in DC circuits
 
When a voltage is applied to a circuit containing only resistive elements, current flowsaccording to ohms law:I = V/R or V = I.RIf a circuit consists of more than one element the overall voltages, resistance and capacitancecan be calculated by simple algebra, for example, with two resistors in series:Current (I) must be the same for both resistors, so:V1 =I.R1, V2=I.R2,Vtot = V1+V2 = I.R1+ !.R2 = I (R1+R2) = I.Rtotso Rtot = R1+ R2
Electromagnetic induction
In 1824 Oersted discovered that current passing though a coil created a magnetic field capableof shifting a compass needle. Seven years later Faraday and Henry discovered the opposite;that a moving magnetic field would induce a voltage in an electrical conductor.The two effects can be shown in a simple transformer connected to a DC supply as below:
 
Guidelines for Shop Inspection Eddy Current
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Guidelines for Shop Inspection – Eddy Current
The meter needle will deflect one way when current is applied then back the other way whenit is removed. A voltage is only induced when the magnetic field is changing.Such a voltage is also induced in the first winding, and will tend to oppose the change in theapplied voltage.The induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of current.A property of the coil called inductance (L) is defined, suchthatIf an AC current flows through an inductor, the voltage across the inductor will be atmaximum when the rate of change of current is greatest. For a sinusoidal wave form this is atthe point where the actual current is zero.Thus the voltage applied to an inductor reaches its maximum value a quarter-cycle before thecurrent does - the voltage is said to lead the current by 90 degrees.

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