Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1


|Views: 42|Likes:
Published by yoshowor

More info:

Published by: yoshowor on Oct 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





EBSCO Sustainability Watch
• Copyright © 2009EBSCO Publishing Inc. • 800-653-2726 • www.ebscohost.com
 A Look at the Fastest Growing Segment of the Travel and TourismIndustry
Watch List
In early 2009, Travelocity joined Orbitz and Expe-dia in mainstreaming “green” travel by launchingtheir “Green Directory.”In October 2008 at the World Conservation Con-gress, Ted Turner announced the launch of theGlobal Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC), base-line criteria for sustainable tourism. A growingnumber of travel and tourism businesses areadopting the GSTC as a guideline.
Key Takeaways
The denition of ecotourism varies depending onwho is using it. Generally, ecotourism involves travelto natural areas that conserves the environment andbenets and empowers local communities.Globally, ecotourism generates $77 billion in rev-enue and makes up 5-7% of the overall travel andtourism market. It is one of the fastest growingsectors of the industry.Volunteer ecotourism is a growing segment of theecotourism market. It is a combination of volun-teerism and tourism.Among the benets of ecotourism are the conser-vation and preservation of natural areas and theeconomic boost to local communities.• In recent years, ecotourism has come undercriticism, with some calling it “ego-tourism” or“greenwashing.”• Some critics view ecotourism as a paradox –the more successful an ecotourism destinationbecomes, the more dicult it is to avoid having anenvironmental and/or cultural impact.In addition to environmental impacts, ecotourismcan also have unintended negative economic andcultural impacts on the local communities.• More than 100 voluntary certication programsexist for sustainable tourism and ecotourism,ranging from self-monitoring programs toISO14000 certication, the “green” standard forthe hotel industry.
Related Sustainability Watch Reports
• GreenwashingGreen JobsSustainability in Emerging Economies
EBSCO Sustainability Watch
• Copyright © 2009EBSCO Publishing Inc. • 800-653-2726 • www.ebscohost.com
Executive Summary
Ecotourism is not easily dened. Some industryexperts view it as a continuum, with mass tour-ism at one end of the spectrum and volunteer,community-based ecotourism at the other end.However, most industry experts agree that eco-tourism involves travel to natural areas in an eortto conserve the environment and benet localcommunities. Globally, ecotourism generates$77 billion in revenue and makes up 5-7% of theoverall travel and tourism market. It is one of thefastest growing sectors in the travel industry, with agrowth rate of 10-30%. Quickly growing segmentsof ecotourism include sustainable (or green) tour-ism and volunteer ecotourism. Sustainable tourisminvolves selecting environmentally-friendly touroperators and facilities while volunteer ecotourism(or “voluntourism”) involves travelers volunteeringat their destination.In its intent to benet the environment, ecotour-ism employs several methods: Park fees are usedto fund conservation eorts and educationalprogramming increases tourists’ knowledge of conservation programs, thus improving behaviorpatterns and enhancing philanthropic support.Additionally, ecotourism benets local communi-ties, often in developing nations, by providing jobs, infrastructure and tourist dollars. There are,however, unintended negative impacts of ecotourism. One of the greatest negative environ-mental impacts is the large carbon footprint of airtravel, particularly to remote ecotourism destina-tions. Tourism and environmentalism are also anuncomfortable pair – the more popular an eco-tourism destination becomes, the more dicult itis to limit the cultural and environmental impactsto the community. The local community also tendsto face the disadvantages of ecotourism – crowd-ing, restricted access to pasture lands or waterand increased prices of goods – without enjoyingits benets. Local politics and corruption oftenmean that only the elite or those in governmentpositions experience signicant economic benetsfrom ecotourism.In order to address these concerns, more than 100voluntary certication programs have emerged forsustainable tourism and ecotourism. These programsrange from regional to international, mainstream tograssroots, and self-monitoring to process-basedcertication. A coalition of environment nonprots,including the Rainforest Alliance, the United NationsEnvironmental Program (UNEP), the United NationalWorld Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the Interna-tional Ecotourism Society (TIES) and the Center forResponsible Travel (CREST), are working together todevelop and implement a framework for sustainabletourism.
Ecotourists in Norway Getty 2008
EBSCO Sustainability Watch
• Copyright © 2009EBSCO Publishing Inc. • 800-653-2726 • www.ebscohost.com
Business Options & Best Practices
Ecotourism Background
Dening ecotourism is not an easy task. Are hotelsthat reduce water use by washing towels only byrequest considered an example of ecotourism, or arethey, as some critics have argued, merely “ecotourismlite”? Is volunteer ecotourism, where participantsspend their vacations working on conservationeorts, the only true form of ecotourism? Many inthe industry view ecotourism as a kind of continuum,with mass tourism at one end of the spectrum andcommunity and volunteer-based ecotourism at theother end.Mexican architect and environmental activist, HectorCeballos-Lascurain, is credited with coining the term“ecotourism” in the early 1980s. The InternationalEcotourism Society (TIES) denes ecotourism as“responsible travel to natural area that conservesthe environment and improves the well-being of local people.” There are many other organizationsand individuals who have come up with additionaldenitions. What is important to note is that all othem point out three important goals or qualities of ecotourism:1. Travel to natural areas;2. Conserve the environment;3. Empower and benet local communities.When businesses seize on one or another of thesegoals and claim “ecotourism” without truly embrac-ing all three, critics have declared it “greenwashing.”Other critics go as far as to call all ecotourism, “ego-tourism” – less about saving the environment thanabout the social status associated with visitingunspoiled nature. The travel and tourism industry makes up 230million jobs worldwide; by 2010, this gure isestimated to grow to 250 million, or 1 in every 11 jobs. Tourism is the principal source of income for83% of developing countries. Globally, ecotour-ism generates $77 billion in revenue and makes up5-7% of the overall travel and tourism market. Itis one of the fastest growing sectors in the travelindustry, with a growth rate of 10-30%. Accordingto information published by the Nature Conser-vancy, the regions most visited by US ecotouristsare: Central America (38%), South America (25%),North America (18%), Mexico and the Caribbean(5%). The United Nations declared 2002 the InternationalYear of Ecotourism. Later that year, the UnitedNations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO),working with the United Nations EnvironmentalProgram (UNEP), The International EcotourismSociety (TIES), Conservation International (CI) andEcological Tourism Europe (ETE), helped organize
Who is an Ecotourist?
The International Ecotourism Society constructed the following ecotourist market prole based on a 1998 survey
of North American travelers AgeRanged from 35-54 years old, although age varied with activity and other factors such ascost.Gender 
50% were female and 50% were male, although differences by activity were found.
82% were college graduates; however, a shift in interest was found to those with less educa
-tion, indicating expansion of ecotourism into mainstream markets.HouseholdComposition
No major differences were found between general tourists and experienced ecotourists (thosewho have been on one or more trips).
 A majority (60%) of experienced ecotourists preferred to travel as a couple; only 15% preferredto travel with their families; and 13% preferred to travel alone.

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Malik Mohamed liked this
Derera Ketema liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->