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Table Of Contents

Notes and References
CHAPTER 1
Navigation
Commercial Two-way Radio
Digital Processing of Analog Signals
Digital Network Synchronization
Phase Noise in PLL and PSK Systems
Utility Fault Location
Space Exploration
Military Requirements
Spread Spectrum Systems
Identification-Friend-Or-Foe (IFF)
Bistatic Radar
Tunability and Stability
Oscillator Acronyms
Crystal Oscillator Categories
Oscillator Circuit Types
OCXO Block Diagram
Instabilities due to Sustaining Circuit
Oscillator Instabilities -Tuned Circuits
Oscillator Instabilities -Circuit Noise
Oscillator Instabilities -External Load
Resonator Self-Temperature Sensing
MCXO Frequency Summing Method
MCXO -Pulse Deletion Method
MCXO -TCXO Resonator Comparison
Opto-Electronic Oscillator (OEO)
CHAPTER3
Quartz Crystal Resonators
Why Quartz?
The Piezoelectric Effect
The Piezoelectric Effect in Quartz
Modes of Motion
Resonator Vibration Amplitude Distribution
Resonant Vibrations of a Quartz Plate
Overtone Response of a Quartz Crystal
Unwanted Modes vs. Temperature
Mathematical Description -Continued
Quartz is Highly Anisotropic
Vibrational Displacements
Resistance vs. Electrode Thickness
Resonator Packaging
Equivalent Circuits
Equivalent Circuit of a Resonator
Resonator Reactance vs. Frequency
What is Q and Why is it Important?
Decay Time, Linewidth, and Q
Factors that Determine Resonator Q
Resonator Fabrication Steps
X-ray Orientation of Crystal Plates
Contamination Control
Crystal Enclosure Contamination
What is an “f-squared”?
Milestones in Quartz Technology
Quartz Resonators for Wristwatches
Why 32,768 Hz?
Quartz Tuning Fork
Watch Crystal
Lateral Field Resonator
Electrodeless (BVA) Resonator
CHAPTER4
Oscillator Stability
The Units of Stability in Perspective
Influences on Oscillator Frequency
Aging and Short-Term Stability
Aging Mechanisms
Typical Aging Behaviors
Stresses on a Quartz Resonator Plate
Force-Frequency Coefficient
Strains Due To Mounting Clips
Strains Due To Bonding Cements
Short Term Instability (Noise)
Time Domain -Frequency Domain
Causes of Short Term Instabilities
Short-Term Stability Measures
Allan Deviation
y(τ)
Time Domain Stability
Pictures of Noise
Spectral Densities
Mixer Functions
Phase Detector
Phase Noise Measurement
φ(f) to SSB Power Ratio Relationship
v(f) and L(f)
Types of Phase Noise
Noise in Crystal Oscillators
Effects of Frequency Multiplication
TCXO Noise
OCXO Oven’s Effect on Stability
Oven Stability Limits
OCXO Power vs. Dimensions
Warmup of AT-and SC-cut Resonators
TCXO Thermal Hysteresis
Apparent Hysteresis
OCXO Retrace
TCXO Trim Effect
Why the Trim Effect?
Effects of Load Capacitance on f vs. T
Effects of Harmonics on f vs. T
Amplitude -Frequency Effect
Frequency vs. Drive Level
Drive Level vs. Resistance
Second Level of Drive Effect
Activity Dips
Frequency Jumps
Acceleration vs. Frequency Change
Acceleration Is Everywhere
Acceleration Affects “Everything”
2-g Tipover Test
Acceleration Sensitivity Vector
Vibration-Induced Phase Excursion
Vibration-Induced Sidebands
Sine Vibration-Induced Phase Noise
Vibration Compensation
Shock
Radiation-Induced Frequency Shifts
Effects of Repeated Radiations
Effects of Flash X-rays on R
Frequency Change due to Neutrons
Neutron Damage
Summary -Pulse Irradiation Results
Summary -Neutron Irradiation Results
Other Effects on Stability
Interactions Among Influences
CHAPTER 5
Quartz Material Properties
Hydrothermal Growth of Quartz
Etching & Chemical Polishing
Left-Handed and Right-Handed Quartz
The Quartz Lattice
Ions in Quartz -Simplified Model
Aluminum Associated Defects
Sweeping
Quartz Quality Indicators
Infrared Absorption of Quartz
Infrared Absorption Coefficient
Quartz Twinning
Twinning -Axial Relationships
Quartz Lattice and Twinning
Quartz Inversion
Phase Diagram of Silica (SiO
Internal Friction (i.e., Q) of AT-cut Quartz
Langasite and Its Isomorphs
CHAPTER 6
Atomic Frequency Standards*
Precision Frequency Standards
Hydrogen-Like Atoms
Atomic Frequency Standard*
Generalized Microwave Atomic
Resonator
Atomic Resonator Concepts
Cs Hyperfine Energy Levels
Laser Cooling of Atoms
Atomic Resonator Instabilities
Noise in Atomic Frequency Standards
Short-Term Stability of a Cs Standard
Short-Term Stability of a Rb Standard
Atomic Standard Acceleration Effects
Rubidium -Crystal Oscillator (RbXO)
RbXO Principle of Operation
Rubidium Crystal Oscillator
CHAPTER 7
Oscillator Comparisons and
Specifications
Oscillator Comparison
Battery Life vs. Oscillator Power
Why Do Crystal Oscillators Fail?
Oscillator Selection Considerations
CHAPTER 8
Time and Timekeeping
What Is Time?
Dictionary Definition of “Time”
The Second
Frequency and Time
Typical Clock
Evolution of Clock Technologies
Progress in Timekeeping
Clock Errors
Frequency Error vs. Time Error
Time Error vs. Elapsed Time
Synchronization, Syntonization
Calibration With a 1 pps Reference
Time Transfer Methods
Global Positioning System (GPS)
GPS
Oscillator’s Impact on GPS
Time Scales
Clock Ensembles and Time Scales
Relativistic Time
Relativistic Time Effects
Relativistic Time Corrections
Some Useful Relationships
One Pulse-Per-Second Timing Signal
BCD Time Code
Time and Frequency Subsystem
"Time" Quotations
CHAPTER 9
Discrete-Resonator Crystal Filter
Monolithic Crystal Filters
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Devices
Quartz Bulk-Wave Resonator Sensors
Dual Mode SC-cut Sensors
Separation of Mass and Temperature
Effects
CHAPTER 10
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Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators. John R. Vig. Rev. 8.5.4.4 (Www.ieee-uffc.org)

Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators. John R. Vig. Rev. 8.5.4.4 (Www.ieee-uffc.org)

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Published by: utilitytrack on Oct 25, 2012
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