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A HAMILTONIAN WHOSE ENERGIES ARE THE ZEROS OF THE RIEMANN XI FUNCTION

A HAMILTONIAN WHOSE ENERGIES ARE THE ZEROS OF THE RIEMANN XI FUNCTION

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Published by: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta on Oct 25, 2012
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10/26/2012

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Hindawi Publishing CorporationInternational Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical SciencesVolumen 2012 ,Article ID 819308,9 pagesdoi:10.1178/2012/819308
Research Article
A HAMILTONIAN OPERATOR WHOSE ENERGIESARE THE ZEROS OF THE RIEMANN XI-FUNCTION
1 2
ix
ξ 
 +  
Jose Javier Garcia MoretaGraduate student of Physics at the UPV/EHU (University of Basque country)In Solid State PhysicsAddres: Practicantes Adan y Grijalba 2 5 GP.O 644 48920 Portugalete Vizcaya (Spain)Phone: (00) 34 685 77 16 53E-mail: josegarc2002@yahoo.esMSC: 34L05 , 34L15, 65F40 , 35Q40 , 81Q05 , 81Q50
Received 16 August 2012; Accepted 24 October 2012 Academic Editor: Shigeru KanemitsuCopyright © 2012 Jose Javier Garcia. This is an open access article distributedunder the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work isproperly cited.
 ABSTRACT: We give an spectral interpretation of the non-trivial zeros of the RiemannXi-function. The main idea of the paper is to find a Hamiltonian (Hermitian) operator inthe form
2
()
 Hpfx
= +
with an even potential
()()
 fxfx
=
whose energies areprecisely
2
n n
 E 
γ  
=
,
the zeros of the Riemann Xi-function
1 2
ix
ξ 
 +  
.
In order to obtain this Hamiltonian we use the WKB method and the Bohr-sommerfeldquantization condition for the energies. We also prove the fact that the Riemann Xi-function is proportional to the Functional determinant
1det(1)4
 Hss
 +  
in thesense of a zeta-regularized determinantIn this paper and for simplicity we use units so
21
m
= =
h
Keywords: = 
Riemann Hypothesis, Functional determinant, WKB semiclassical Approximation , Trace formula ,Bolte’s law.
1
 
1.Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions and Riemannzeros:
Before we introduce the Borh-sommerfeld quantization condtion , we need tointroduce the notation for the half derivative and the half integral operator, asthe Riemann-Liouville differintegral [10]
12102
()1()(1/2)
 x
dfxddtfdx xdx
=Γ 
∫ 
 
12102
()1()(1/2)
 x
dfxfdt  xdx
=Γ 
∫ 
(1)
Why do we need the Bohr-sommerfeld quantizaton condition ?, the idea is toget a Hamiltonian of the form
22
()()()()() () =0
nn n n n n
dx HxfxxExdx
ΨΨ = + Ψ = Ψ Ψ ±
(2)Here the potential is even
()()
 fxfx
=
and the Eigenfunctions will satisfy theidentity
() =(1)()
nn n
 xx
Ψ Ψ
the idea is to recover this potential from the Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions.The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions [6] for Energies are
122
 pdqn
π 
 = +  
∫ 
 
0
2()()
a
dxEfxpx
=
∫ 
 
()
 Efa
=
(3)Here ‘a’ is the classical turning point where the momentum of the particle is
0
 p
=
,
()
nN
=
is the Eigenvalue staircase for the quantum system given as
( )
0
()
nn
 NEHE
=
=
and
1 x>0()0 x<0
 Hx
=
is Heaviside step function.The first integral inside (3) is a line integral taken over the closed orbit of theclassical system, equation (3) can be understood as an integral equation for theinverse of the potential in the form
( )11120 0
12()2()4()42()2
a a  x
df nEnEEVxdxExDfxdx
π π π 
=
 + = − = =  
∫ 
(4)From the last equation inside (3) we get an implicit equation for the potential inthe form
12112
()()
 fxnxdx
π 
=
, so the inverse of the potential is just the half-derivative of the eigenvalue staircase.
2
 
For the special case of the Riemann zeros then the eigenvalue staircase is
20
11()arg()2
nn
nEiEH
ξ γ  π 
=
 = + = −  
, with
2
(1)()()22
 s
 sss ss
ξ π ζ 
 = Γ   
So if we use the properties of the derivative of a power 
( )( )
11
dx xdx
λ λ 
λ λ 
Γ +=Γ +
,[10] ,then the implicit equation for the potential can be rewritten as the sum
2120
()()
nnn
 Hx fx x
γ  γ  
=
=
with
1=02
n
i
ξ γ  
 +  
or 
12112
11()arg2
 fxixdx
ξ π 
 = +  
 from the definition of spectral staircase of the Riemann Zeros.In general the inverse of the potential will have 2 terms, an oscillating termproportional to
1212
11arg2
ixdx
ζ π 
 +  
given by the Bolte’s law [4] and another smooth term much bigger which is proportional to the half derivative of 
71log228
 EOe x
π π 
  + +     
We will examine how to evaluate this sum using the primes and prime powerswith the aid of the Riemann-Weil formula [13]Since we have chosen the potential function
()
 fx
from the Bohr-sommerfeldconditions, then it is likely that the density of states of our Hamiltonian is relatedto a sum over the primes or other the Zeta function (square) zeros.
2.Riemann-Weil formula and the density of states for ouHamiltonian:
The Riemann-Weil trace formula is given by [13]
1
()1'1()2(0)ln2(ln)()2242
n
inishhggndshsn
γ  
γ π π 
=−∞
Λ Γ  = + + Γ  
∫ 
(5)
Here,
0
1()()cos()()2
 gkdxhxkxg
π 
= =
∫ 
h(x) and g(x) are test functions whichform a Fourier transform pair and
ln()0 otherwise
 p n pn
=Λ =
is the Mangoldtfunction., see [2]If we use the test function
( )
2 2
(,)
hrxx
δ 
=
inside (5) we obtain
3

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