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Compilation of Notes Ele3104 Topic 5-8

Compilation of Notes Ele3104 Topic 5-8

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Published by Hanis Athirah Rusli

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Published by: Hanis Athirah Rusli on Oct 25, 2012
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Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 
Writing is the system for interpersonalcommunication using visible signs or graphic symbols on a flat surfacesuch as paper, cloth n ect.
Purpose of writing:
To get thing done
To inform
To persuade
To maintain relationship
To document occurances,events, ect
Types of writing:
5.1 PRINCIPLE OF TEACHING WRITING1. Understand your students’ reasons forwriting.
The greatest dissatisfaction with writinginstruction comes when the teacher’sgoals do not match the student’s, or whenthe teacher’s goals do not match those ofthe school or institution in which thestudent works. It is important to understandboth and to convey goals to students inways that make sense to them.
2. Provide many opportunities for studentsto write.
Writing almost always improves withpractice. Evaluate your lesson plans: howmuch time is spent reading or talkingabout writing, and how much is spentactually writing? Practice writing shouldprovide students with different types ofwriting as well. Short responses to areading, journal entries, letter writing,summaries, poetry, or any type of writingyou find useful in your class should bepracticed in class.
3. Make feedback helpful and meaningful.
Students crave feedback on their writing,yet it doesn’t always have the intendedeffect. If you write comments on students’papers, make sure they understand thevocabulary or symbols you use. Take timeto discuss them in class. Be cautious aboutthe tone of your comments.
Find one good idea the studenthas, and make an encouragingcomment about it.
Find a place where the studentwasn’t clear, and write a commentthat will help her/him clarify it.
Identify a grammar problem, andmake a comment that will help thestudent see the problem in other places in the paper.
4. Clarify for yourself, and for your students,how their writing will be evaluated.
Students often feel that the evaluation oftheir writing is completely subjective.Teachers often hear, “I just don’tunderstand what you want.” One way tocombat that feeling is to first develop astatement for yourself about what is valuedin student writing, either in your classroomor in your institution as a whole.
Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 
STEP)Building Visual Readiness Skills:
 Visual readiness begins with recognizingshapes and then letters and numbers andfinally words. Reading books and signs andpointing out words is helpful. Here we'renot concerned that they "read" or recognize the specific words so much asthat they begin to understand that "oh,together those letters make a word." Alsolabel, items and pictures along with your child so that you are role modelingidentifying items with writing.
Building Fine Motor and Eye/HandCoordination:
 Many preschool activities that just seemlike fun are actually building fine motor skillsand eye/hand coordination. Here are 10examples of good pre-writing activities:
Working puzzles
Building with blocks
Pouring water into cups
Stringing beads
Finger painting
Bouncing and catching balls
Cutting with scissors
Matching shapes
Threading "sewing" cards
Super Fun Pre-Writing Activity:
To buildfinger strength, fill clean spray bottles withwater and let kids spray a surface like afence or sidewalk. It just seems like a funactivity to them, but the trigger finger action is actually strengthening little fingers.
Beginning Writing:
 When your child is ready to write, start withmarkers or chalk on a big blank surfacesuch as a board or paper on an easel.Demonstrate the writing of letters withoutfocusing yet on size, hence no lined paper for beginning writers. As young childrenprogress you can offer smaller paper withcrayonsor felt tip pens.
Educator's tip:
Many parents begin byteaching young children to write capitalletters and they come to kindergartenwriting their names in all caps. Start fromday one teaching your child to write their name with only the first letter capitalized sothat he won't have to relearn how to writehis name.
Generating ideas
using learners' own ideas can makethe writing more memorable andmeaningful. Before writing a letter ofcomplaint, learners think about asituation when they havecomplained about faulty goods or bad service (or have felt likecomplaining), and tell a partner.As the first stage of preparing towrite an essay, I give learners theessay title and pieces of scrappaper. They have 3 minutes to work alone, writing one idea on each
Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 
piece of paper, before comparing ingroups. Each group can thenpresent their 3 best ideas to theclass. It doesn't matter if the ideasaren't used in the final piece ofwriting, the important thing is tobreak through the barrier of ' I can'tthink of anything to write.
Focusing ideas
 This involves thinking about which ofthe many ideas generated are themost important or relevant, andperhaps taking a particular point ofview. As part of the essay-writingprocess, students in groups put theideas generated in the previousstage onto a 'mind map'. Theteacher then draws a mind-map onthe board, using ideas from thedifferent groups. At this stage he /she can also feed in some usefulcollocations - this gives the learnersthe tools to better express their ownideas.I tell my students to write individuallyfor about 10 minutes, withoutstopping and without worrying aboutgrammar or punctuation. If theydon't know a particular word, theywrite it in their L1. This often helpslearners to further develop some ofthe ideas used duringthe'Generating ideas' stage.Learners then compare together what they have written, and use adictionary, the teacher or eachother to find in English any words or phrases they wrote in their L1.
Focus on a model text
 Once the students have generatedtheir own ideas, and thought aboutwhich are the most important or relevant, I try to give them the toolsto express those ideas in the mostappropriate way. The examination ofmodel texts is often prominent inproduct or genre approaches towriting, and will help raise learners'awareness of the conventions oftypical texts of different genres inEnglish.I give learners in groups severalexamples of a genre, and they use agenre analysis form to identify thefeatures and language they have incommon. This raises their awarenessof the features of the genre andgives them some language 'chunks'they can use in their own writing.Learners identify the function ofdifferent paragraphs in a piece ofwriting. For example, in a jobapplication letter, the functions ofthe paragraphs might be somethinglike;
reason for writing
how I found out about the job
relevant experience, skills andabilities
closing paragraph asking for an interview

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