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History Election 1920

History Election 1920

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Published by: Diomand Alexis Henry on Oct 26, 2012
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World Affairs Institute
INTERNATIONAL NOTESReviewed work(s):Source:
The Advocate of Peace (1894-1920),
Vol. 82, No. 2 (FEBRUARY, 1920), pp. 69-71Published by:
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1920ADVOCATEOFPEACE69
EVACUATESIN FEBRUARY
"Notonlyarethe Czecho-SlovaktroopsnowsuccessfullyadvancingineasternSiberia,butanagreementhas beeneffectedbetweenthegovernmentsofGreatBritainandthe
United Statesprovidingfor theirrepatriationfromVladi
vostok. American vesselswillbegintoarriveatthatportbyFebruary1,andacontingentofmorethan10,000Czechoslovaktroopscanbeimmediatelyembarked.Itisexpectedthatevacuationwillproceedrapidlythereafter,andfrom
thatdatethefirstpurposeforwhichAmericansoldierswere
sent toSiberiamayberegardedasaccomplished.
COMPLICATIONSFEARED
"Withrespecttothesecondpurpose, namely,thesteadyingofefforts atself-governmentorself-defenseonthepartof theRussians,theGovernmentofthe UnitedStatesisimpressedwiththepoliticalinstabilityandgraveuncertaintiesofthepresentsituationineasternSiberia,asdescribedin the aidememoirepresentedbytheJapaneseAmbassadorDecember8,andisdisposedto theviewthatfurthermilitaryeffort to assistthe Russiansin thestruggletoward selfgovernmentmay,inthepresentsituation,leadtocomplications which would haveexactlytheopposite effect, prolongingpossiblytheperiodofreadjustmentandinvolvingJapanandtheUnitedStatesinineffectiveandneedlesssacrifices.
Itisfeltaccordinglyto beunlikelythat thesecondpurpose
for whichAmericantroopsweresent toSiberiawillbelongerservedbytheirpresencehere."Inview, then,ofthe factthatthemainpurposefor whichAmericantroopsweresent toSiberiaisnowatanendandofthe considerationsset forthinthecommunicationof theJapaneseGovernmentofDecember8,whichsubsequenteventsineasternSiberia havestrengthened,theGovernmentoftheUnitedStateshas decidedtobeginatoncearrangements for theconcentrationof theAmerican forcesat Vladivostok,withaviewto theirembarkationanddepartureimmediatelyaftertheleavingofthefirstimportantcontingentofCzecho-Slovaktroops?thatis tosay,aboutFebruary1.
RAILWAYEXPERTSTOWITHDRAW
"Carefulconsiderationhasalsobeengiventothepossi
bilityofcontinuingafterthedepartureoftheAmerican
troopstheassistanceofAmericanrailwayexpertsin theoperationofthe TranssiberianandChineseEasternrailways.Itwillberecalledthat itisexpresslystipulatedintheplanforthesupervisionof theserailways,whichwassubmittedbytheJapaneseAmbassadoratWashingtonJanuary15,1919,that thearrangementshouldceaseuponthewithdrawaloftheforeignmilitaryforcesfromSiberia,and thatallforeignrailwayexperts appointedunderthearrangementshould then be recalledforthwith. Theexperienceof recentmonthsintheoperationof therailwaysunderconditionsofunstablecivilauthorityandfrequentlocalmilitaryinterferencefurnishesastrongreasonforabiding bytheterms of theoriginalagreement."Arrangementswillbe madeaccordinglyforthewithdrawalof theAmericanrailwayexpertsunderthesameconditionsandsimultaneouslywiththedepartureoftheAmericanmilitaryforces.
NOT ANEND OF CO-OPERATION
"TheGovernmentoftheUnitedStatesdesires theJapaneseGovernmenttoknow thatitregretsthenecessityforthisdecision,becauseitseemstomarktheend,forthe timebeingatleast,ofco-operativeeffortbyJapanand theUnited
StatestoassisttheRussianpeople,whichhadoflatebegun
tobearimportantresultsandseemed togive promisefor
thefuture.TheGovernmentof theUnitedStatesismostappreciativeofthefriendlyspiritwhichhasanimated the
GovernmentofJapaninthisundertaking,and is convinced
thatthebasisofunderstandingwhichhasbeenestablishedwillserve in the futuretofacilitatethecommonefforts ofthetwo countriestodealwiththeproblemswhichconfrontthemin Siberia.TheGovernment oftheUnited Statesdoes
notintheleastrelinquishthedeepinterestwhich it feels inthepoliticalandeconomicfateofthepeopleof Siberianoritspurposetoco-operatewithJapaninthe most frankandfriendlywayinallpractical planswhichmaybeworkedoutforthepoliticaland economic rehabilitationofthatregion."
LETTERBOX
LynnHaven,Florida.TheAmericanPeaceSociety.
DearFriends:Kindly acceptmy manythanksfortheprivilegeoforderingourgoodPeace Advocateunderold
rates.Findinclosedpost-officeorder ofonedollarfor theensuingyear,which send to thefollowingaddress andgreatlyobligeawonderfullypleasedreader.Sincerely,ElminaTitus.
INTERNATIONALOTES
ThefutureofProtestantism incentralEuropeisgivingmuchconcernto ecclesiasticalstatesmenbred intheschoolsofLuther,Calvin,and?rminius,butespeciallyto thefollowers ofLuther. WealludedinourNovember, 1919,issuetotheburdensthatthewarhadlaiduponAmericanLutheranism.intakingupsomeofthereligiousandhumanitarianenterprisesthatGermanLutheranchurcheshadcarriedoninpossessionsnownon-Germanundertheterms ofthePeaceTreaty.ItisnowannouncedthatAmerican-GermanLutheransareplanningtostandsponsorforanEcumenical LutheranCounciltobeheldintheUnitedStatesthisyear.EepresentativesofAmericanandGermanchurcheswith75,000,000adherentswillthenlistentothereportonconditionsincentralEuropetobemadebycommissioners fromthe UnitedStateswhohavespentsixmonthsfindingoutwhattheprecisefactsarewhich theLutheranclergyandlaityface.PresidentMorehead,ofEoanokeCollege,whohasservedonthiscommission,andwhoissoonto returntoEuropetoadminister suchimmediate reliefascanbegiven,isquotedassayingthat"theLutheranChurchinAmericamustguidetheLutheranChurchinGermany,ifitis tomeet itspresentproblemsandremainapowerinthe world.Ifwefail,thereisadangerthatProtestantism there willpass."Oneoftheseproblemsisthechangeofagreatorganizationfromthat ofasubsidized andtax-supportedStatechurchtotha,tofavoluntary-supportbasis,which isnoeasyproblem,witheconomicconditions andsocialpropagandaconditionsastheynow are.Aproposthe issue ofunionofstate andchurch,itissuggestivetofind thatinScotland,thelandofKnox,whereCalvin"stampedhis ironheel"sodeeply,toquoteOliver WendellHolmes,the UnitedFree Churchandthe Church ofScotland,thestaterecognizedchurch,havedecidedtounite,theissuesthathithertodividedthemhavingcometo besoinsignificantcomparedwiththeproblemsnowfacingthe churchasawholeinaverysecularworld.InCzecho-Slavia,aswepointedout(December,1919),thegovernmenthassharplydefinedthisissueby affirming repeatedly,bothinitsorganiclawandinitsexecutive'sutterances,theseparationofchurchand State;andalreadyasplithascomein theranksoftheEomanCatholicChurchinconsequenceofthe liberalgovernmentalattitude.
 
70 ADVOCATE OF PEACEFebruary
SovietBussiahasawayof herownindealingwiththe"conscientiousobjector"towar,which,if itisoperative,deserves consideration.Hereistheplan:
1.Personswho,onaccountof theirreligiousconvictions,cannottakepartinmilitaryservicearebound,subjectto
thejudgmentoftheNationalTribunal,toreplaceitbyan
equalperiodintheservice oftheircomrades, bysanitaryservice?mainlyinthehospitalsforcontagiousdiseases?orbyotherworkofpublicservice,attheoptionoftherecruit.
2.TheNationalTribunal,ingivingitsjudgmentforthe
substitutionofcivil workformilitaryservice,shaUdemandareportoneachcasefrom theUnited CouncilofReligiousGroupsandCommunitiesofMoscow.Evidenceshallbegivenastowhethersuchreligiousconvictionprecludesparticipationinmilitaryservice,aswellasto thesincerityandhonestyoftherefractoryperson.
3.InexceptionalcasestheUnited CouncilofReligious
GroupsandCommunitiesmayapplyto the All-Russian CentralExecutive Committeeforthecomplete exemptionofaperson,withoutthe substitutionofanyotherservicewhatsoever,iftheyareable toprovebywrittendocumentsonthequestion,andbythelife hitherto ledbythesaidperson,
thatsuchasubstitution wouldbeincompatiblewithhis
religiousconvictions.Supplementary.?Theclaimforexemptionmaybemade
bythepersonhimselforbytheUnited Council.The latter
maydemandthat thecasebetriedat the National TribunalinMoscow.
(Signed)Lenin,Presidentofthe CouncilofPeople'sCommissars.
Kubsky,CommissarofJustice.BonchBbuyevitch,StateChancellor.Fotieva, Secretary.
TheadultresidentsofthefirstSchleswigplebiscitezone,votingFebruary10,byapproximatelya3 to 1vote,decidedtoresumeallegiancetoDenmarkandsay"good-bye"toGermany.VotinginthesecondplebiscitezonewillcomeMarch 7andprobablywillhavethesameresult.TheGermanpresscomplainsthat theconditions of thevotingwereunfair;andaddsthat it is far easier toannex6,000Germansthanit istoassimilatethem.Allofwhichmaybetrue;butanyotheroutcomeof thevotingwashardlytobeexpected.Apreponderanceof Danesexisted,andwhatmorenaturalthan thattheyshouldwanttobecomepoliticallywhattheywereculturallyandracially!China'spoliticalfutureisthought bycompetentinvestigatorsto restsolargelyonstabilizationofherdomestic financesandonrectificationofherdeeplyrootedsystemoflivingonfundsborrowedabroad,thattheUnitedStates,GreatBritain, France,andJapan,throughtheirrepresentatives,assembledinParis lastMay,agreedthatanewinternationalconsortiumshouldbe formedtoaidtheEepublicinitspublicenterprises,andthiswithoutanyonecreditorpowerprofiting bythearrangement.Itwasagreed:(a)Thatnocountryshouldattempttocultivatespecial
spheresofinfluence;
( )That allexistingoptionsheldbyamemberofany
ofthenationalgroupsshould,sofaraspracticable,beturned intothe consortiumas awhole;
(c)Thatthefourbankinggroupsof thecountriesin
questionshould acttogetherinconcert andinaneffective
partnershipintheinterestsofChina;and,
(?)Thattheconsortium'soperationsshould dealpri
marilywith loansto theChineseRepublicortoprovinces
oftheRepublic,orwithloansguaranteedorofficiallyhav
ingtodowith theRepublicoritsprovinces,andineach
instanceofcharactersufficientto warrantageneralissue.
Fourof thefivegovernmentsgavequickassenttotheprinciplesanddetailsagreeduponinParis.Japanheldoffandmadespecialstipulations.Events havesincesoshapedthemselvesinnorthernAsia thatJapanhasmodifiedherpolicyofaggressiontoward]Chinaandnowis inamoretractable andco-operativemood.Therefore thefirststepsinthisprocessofco-operationhavebeguntoberegistered,andthesailingofThomasW.Lamont,ofthefirmofJ.P.Morgan&Co.,forJapanandChinainmid-Februaryisasignofthetimes. InasmuchasChinamustconsenttosomesucharrangementasthis,thesolutionthusproposedisencouraging;but,consideredabstractly,it hasthedefectofperpetuatingastatusinwhichnopeoplecanpossiblycometofullestperfectionas apolitical entity.Chinaalreadyhassufferedgraveinjury bythe debtorr?leshe has filled forsolongatime. Americaninfluenceprettyconsistentlyhas beenagainstencouragement ofthisdependentstatus.The UnitedStatesonlycomesinnowbypracticallydictatingtheterms,whichshe isabletodobyher combined moralandmoney
power.
Canada'splace asanationandherrighttotherepresentationaccorded herundertheLeagueof Nations'Covenant havebeen discussedfrankly throughouttheBritishdominions,intheUnitedStatesSenate,andinCanadasincethetreatywassigned.ThestatementsintheUnitedStatesSenatehave beenhostileinsomecases,andtheyhave hadtheireffectontheutterancesofCanadianofficials,whohavereplied,thoughofcoursetheyhave differentiatedbetweenthesignificanceofopinionsthatarepersonalandanyformalaction oftheSenate.Whenthe lattercomes,thentheywillspeakofficiallyand innouncertainterms,justastheyhave to theoldguard,Britishimperialistic politicians andadvocatesinLondon,whomoreorlessopenlychallengethepositioninsisteduponbyPremierBordenat Paris andconcededbyLloyd-Georgeandbythesignatorypowers.JustwhattheCanadianpositionis,asdefinedbyofficialsnowinpoweratOttawa,maybe inferredfromastatementbyHon. N".W.Powell,presidentof thePrivyCouncil,aprominentformerLiberalwho tookofficeinthe coalitionministry.Hesaid:
"Great Britainhasonlyonevoteandeachoftheself
governingdominions of theBritishEmpirehasavotein its
ownrightasanoriginalmember oftheLeague.Thosewhocontend that GreatBritain hassixvoteswhollyignorethefact thattheBritishEmpireiscomposedofagroupoffree,self-governingnationsofequalstatusthoughnot ofequalpower,andthateachof thesenationsisamember of theLeagueandhasarighttoparticipateinitsdeliberations.

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