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Solar Hot Water Sys Examples

Solar Hot Water Sys Examples

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Published by H Janardan Prabhu
Example designs for Solar Hot Water Systems
By Walter Gillies An example of designing several solar water heating projects comparing the costs of running the circulator pump with mains power or directly coupled to a photovoltaic solar panel.
Example designs for Solar Hot Water Systems
By Walter Gillies An example of designing several solar water heating projects comparing the costs of running the circulator pump with mains power or directly coupled to a photovoltaic solar panel.

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Published by: H Janardan Prabhu on Oct 28, 2012
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08/04/2013

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Example designsforSolar Hot Water Systems
By
Walter Gillies
An example of designing several solar water heating projects comparing the costs of running the circulator pump with mains power or directly coupled to a photovoltaic solarpanel.
 
 
Abstract:
A general method for determining the financial viability of solar hot water systems ispresented. The method, illustrated by two examples, one a house in Canada, the other ahotel in the United Arab Emirates, uses the free Canadian Government program
 RETScreen
to determine the most economical number of solar thermal panels on the basisof payback time and cumulative cash flow. A free program,
CARF 
, is used to calculatepressure drop in the system, which allows selection of an appropriate circulator pumpsize. Financial viability of conventional 115 VAC grid powered circulator pumps arethen compared to payback time for direct coupled photovoltaic powered circulator pumpsystems.For small systems that heat only hundreds of liters of water per day, as for a typicalhousehold, the most economic and reliable system is often an integrated DC motor-pumpdirect coupled to a photovoltaic panel. For larger systems that heat thousands of liters of water per day, a conventional electronic controller and an AC pump is generally the moreeconomic option. Choosing the most economic circulator system can be done by using apayback time calculation program (retscreen.net) for each particular solar hot waterinstallation. There is no single best circulator pump solution; indeed, the best solutionmay be no circulator pump at all, so a general method is presented here to compareeconomics of various solar hot water system circulator pump options.
 
 
Table of Contents
 Abstract:..............................................................................................................................2List of Figures.....................................................................................................................4List of Tables......................................................................................................................4Part 1: Introduction.............................................................................................................5Part 1: Introduction.............................................................................................................5Why solar hot water?......................................................................................................5How solar water heating works.......................................................................................5System overview.........................................................................................................5Circulator Pump Control.............................................................................................6Why Photovoltaics for the Pump?..................................................................................7Part 2: Method.....................................................................................................................9Objective of Selection.....................................................................................................9Steps to be followed........................................................................................................9Example Cases Selected...............................................................................................10Solar Thermal Collectors Selection..............................................................................10Direct versus Indirect:...........................................................................................11Flow Rate and Efficiency:........................................................................................11Flow rate versus solar thermal system efficiency:....................................................11Part 3: Modeling Payback Period.....................................................................................13The RETScreen Program:.........................................................................................13Source of RETScreen program inputs:.....................................................................13Baseline-House-RETScreen data..............................................................................13Baseline Financial Results-House.............................................................................15Baseline-Hotel-RETScreen data...............................................................................16Baseline Financial Results-Hotel..............................................................................17Baseline case: Number of Collector Panels..............................................................18Calculation of Circulator Pump Power.....................................................................18Pressure loss program inputs:...................................................................................19Pumped Head and Pump Size Results:.........................................................................19Control of Solar Thermal Water Heaters......................................................................20Differential Controller..............................................................................................20Photovoltaic Control.................................................................................................21Timers, Manual Control, No Control........................................................................21Comparing Costs...........................................................................................................21Payback Time and Cumulative Cash Flow Compared.................................................23Part 4: Conclusions..........................................................................................................23Consumer Preferences..............................................................................................23Appendix A: Solar Hot Water System Configurations....................................................25Appendix B: Solar Data, Dubai and Victoria...................................................................27Appendix C: Modification of Test Report Values:..........................................................27Appendix D: Payback Period vs Number of Solar Hot Water Panels.............................30Baseline House System Payback vs Panels..................................................................30Baseline Hotel System Payback vs Panels....................................................................30Appendix E: Circulator Pump Flow and Head................................................................31Appendix F: Pipe Inner Surface Roughness....................................................................34

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