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Daniel Shanks - Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory (2Nd Ed), 1978

Daniel Shanks - Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory (2Nd Ed), 1978

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SECOND EDITIONCopyright 0.1962. by Daniel ShanksCopyright
0.
1978. by Daniel ShanksLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataShanks. Daniel
.
Solved and unsolved problems in number theoryBibliography:
p
.
Includes index
.
1
Numbers. Theory
of
.
I
.
Title
[QA241.S44
19781
5E.7
77-13010ISBN 0-8284-0297-3Printed on ‘long-life’ acid-free paperPrinted in the United States of America
CONTENTS
PAGE
PREFACE
......................................
Chapter
I
FROM PERFECT KGXIBERS TO THE QUADRATICRECIPROCITY
LAW
SECTION
1
Perfect Xumbcrs
..........................................
1
.
4
.
Euclid
............
3
Euler’s Converse Pr
................
...............
8
4
.
Euclid’s Algorithm
.......
...............................
8
5
Cataldi and Others
.....
...............................
12
6
.
The Prime Kumber Theorem
..............................
157
.
Two Useful Theorems
.....................................
17
8
Fermat. and 0t.hcrs
19
9
.
Euler’s Generalization
Promd
..............................
2310 Perfect Kunibers,
I1
25
11
Euler and
dial..
...........................
.............
2512 Many Conjectures and their Interrelations
...................
2913 Splitting
tshe
Primes into Equinumerous Classes
..............
31
14
Euler’s Criterion Formulated
.....
.......................
3315 Euler’s Criterion Proved
....................................
3516 Wilson’s Theorem
.........................................
3717 Gauss’s Criterion
...................................
38
18 The Original Lcgendre Symbol
.
.....................
40
19 The Reciprocity Law
..........
.....................
4220
.
The Prime Divisors
of
n2
+
a
..
.....................
47
.............................
.
........................................
.
.......................................
Chapter
I1
THE CSDERLTISG STRUCTURE21
.
The Itesidue Classes
as
an Invention
22
.
The Residue
Classes
3s
a
Tool
.............................
23
.
The Residue
Classcs
as
n
Group
............................
24
.
Quadratic Residues
63
.........................
51
5559
.......................................
V
 
vi
Solved
and
Unsolved Problems
in
Number Theory
Contents
vii
SECTION
PAGE
6.2
66
68
28
.
Primitive Roots with a Prime i\Iodulus
.
...........
7130
.
The Circular Parity Switch
..........
...........
76
31
.
Primitive
Roots
and Fermat Xumhcrs.,
...........
78
...........
5
.
Is
the Quadratic Recipro&y Law
a
Ilerp Thcoreni?26 Congruent.
d
Equations with
a
Prime Modulus
27
.
Euler’s
4
E’unct.ion
........................................
29
.
mp
s a Cyclic Group
................
...........
73
32
.
Artin’s Conjectures
..................
...........
80
33
.
Questions Concerning Cycle Graphs
...
...........
83
34
.
Answers Concerning Cycle Graphs
....
...........
9235
.
Factor Generators of
3%
...................................
36
.
Primes in Some Arithmetic Progressions and a General Divisi-bility Theorem
..........
............................
104
37
.
Scalar
and
Vect.
or Indices
..................................
109
38
.
The
Ot.
her Residue Classes
......
......................
113
39
.
The Converse of Fermat’s Theore
118
................
98
................
40
.
Sufficient Coiiditiorls for Primality
..........................
Chapter
111
PYTHAGOREAKISM
AKD
ITS
MAXY
COKSEQUESCES41
.
The Pythagoreans
...................
............
12142 The Pythagorean Theorein
..........
................
12343
.
The
42
and the Crisis
.........................
44
.
The Effect upon Geometry
................................
12745
.
The Case for Pythagoreanism
.........................
46
.
Three Greek Problems
....
..................
47
.
Three Theorems of Fermat
................................
14248
.
Fermat’s Last’ “Theorem”
.......
.......................
14449
.
The Easy Case and Infinite Desce
.......................
14750
.
Gaussian Integers and Two Applications
.
...........
14951
.
Algebraic Integers and Kummer’s Theore
...........
1.5152 The Restricted Case,
S
53 Euler’s “Conjecture”
.
................................
15754 Sum of Two Squares
......................
......
159
56
.
A
Generalization and Binary Quadratic Forms
....
57
.
Some Applicat.ions
.............................
60
.
An Algorithm
.................................
.....
178Gcrmain, and Wieferich
..
55
A Generalization and Geometric Xumber Theory
..............
161
........
16558 The Significance of Fermat’s Equation
...........
59 The Main Theorem
...........
..........................
174
SECTION
PAGE
61
.
Continued Fractions for
fi
..............................
18062
.
From Archimedes to Lucas
................................
188
63 The Lucas Criterion
.......................................
19364
.
A Probability Argument
....................................
197
65
Fibonacci Xumbers and the Original Lucas Test
.............
198
Appendix to Chapters
1-111
SUPPLEMENTARY
OMMENTS.HEOREMS.
ND
EXERCISES
........
01
Chapter IVPROGRESS
SECTION
66
.
Chapter
I
Fifteen Years Later
....................
217
69
.
Pseudoprimes and Primality
......................
226
70
.
Fermat’s Last “Theorem,
I1
.....................
231
72
.
Binary Quadratic Forms with Positive Discriminants
.......
35
74
.
The Progress Report Concluded
...................
238
67
.
Artin’s Conjectures,
I1
.........................
222
68
.
Cycle Graphs and Related Topics
...................
25
71
Binary Quadratic Forms with Negative Discriminants
......
33
73
.
Lucas and Pythagoras
.........................
237
Appendix
STATEMENT
N
FUNDAMENTALS
......................
239TABLE
F
DEFINITIONS
...........................
241
REFERENCES
..................................
243
INDEX
.....................................
255

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