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12/04/2012

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Vibrations of Structures
Module I: Vibrations of Strings and BarsLesson 1: Transverse Vibrations of Strings
Contents:
1.Introduction2.Mathematical Model3.Examples
Keywords:
Transverse vibrations, Taut string, Hanging chain, equation of motion, non-homogeneous boundary condition

Transverse Vibrations of Strings
1 Introduction
A string is a one dimensional elastic continuum that does not transmit orresist bending moment.Elements that may be modeled as taut strings:
Strings in stringed musical instruments such as sitar, guitar or violin
Cables in a cable-stayed bridge or cable-car
High tension wires
2 Mathematical Model
Assumptions in modeling:
Motion is planar
Slope of the string is small
Longitudinal motion is negligible
Tension does not change with displacement of the string
2

(a)
lxw
(
x,t
)
ρ,A,T
(b)
x x
+ d
x
d
s
(
x,t
)
α
(
x,t
)
(
x
+ d
x,t
)
α
(
x
+ d
x,t
)
p
(
x,t
)d
sn
(
x,t
)d
s
Figure 1: (a) A taut string (b) An inﬁnitesimal string element
Consider a string of density
ρ
, area of cross-section
A
(
x
), length
l
and undera tension
(
x,t
) subject to distributed forces (force per unit length)
p
(
x,t
)in the transverse direction, and
n
(
x,t
) in the axial direction . Let
w
(
x,t
) bethe transverse displacement ﬁeld variable.
Longitudinal dynamics
:Balance of forces in the longitudinal direction of the sting element in Fig. 1(b)reads
(
x
+ d
x,t
)cos[
α
(
x
+ d
x,t
)]
(
x,t
)cos[
α
(
x,t
)] +
n
(
x,t
)d
x
= 0
[
(
x,t
)]
,x
=
n
(
x,t
)
,
(1)where [
·
]
,x
=
∂/∂x
. Here, we have assumed d
s
d
x
and cos
α
1.
3