Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Amin - 1973 - Underdevelopment and Dependence in Black Africa; Their Historical Origins and Contemporary Forms

Amin - 1973 - Underdevelopment and Dependence in Black Africa; Their Historical Origins and Contemporary Forms

Ratings: (0)|Views: 20 |Likes:
Published by xenlogic

More info:

Published by: xenlogic on Oct 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/29/2013

pdf

text

original

 
UNDERDEVELOPMENT AND DEPENDENCE IN BLACK AFRICA – THEIR HISTORICAL ORIGINSAND CONTEMPORARY FORMSAuthor(s): Samir Amin and Cherita GirvanReviewed work(s):Source:
Social and Economic Studies,
Vol. 22, No. 1, DEPENDENCE AND UNDERDEVELOPMENTIN THE NEW WORLD AND THE OLD (MARCH 1973), pp. 177-196Published by:
,
Stable URL:
Accessed: 26/06/2012 19:52
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at
.
.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
.
University of the West Indies
and
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies
are collaboratingwith JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to
Social and Economic Studies.
http://www.jstor.org
 
177UNDERDEVELOPMENTANDDEPENDENCEINBLACK AFRICA-
THEIRHISTORICAL ORIGINSAND CONTEMPORARYFORMSBy
SamirAmin
THE UNITY ANDDIVERSITY OFBLACKAFRICA
ContemporaryBlack Africacanbedividedintowideregionswhichareclearlydifferentfromoneanother.But it ismoredifficulttopinpointthedifferences,tostudytheirnature,originsandeffects,thantoseethem.Nonetheless,theunityof theareaisnotwithoutfoundations. Onthecontrary,besidesthequestionof"race"-whichisnomorehomogeneousnorlessmixed,sincepre-historicaltimes,thanaretheother"races"(white, yelloworred)?acommon orkindredculturalbackgroundandasocialorganizationwhich stillpresentsstrikingsimilarities,makearealityof BlackAfrica. Thislivingreality,extensiveandrich,didnotwaitforcolonialconquestinordertoborrowfromorgiveofitselftothe otherwideregionsofthe oldworld,theMediterraneaninparticularbutalsoEuropeandAsia.Theimageofanancient,isolated andintroverted Africanolonger belongstothisage:isolation-naturallyassociated withaso-called"primitive"character-onlycorrespondedtoanideologicalnecessitybornoutofcolonialracism.Buttheseexchangeswith other cultures didnotbreaktheunityof theAfricanpersonality.On thecontrary,theyhelpedto assertandenrich it. Thecolonialconquestofalmostthewhole ofthe continentstrengthenedthisfeelingofunityofBlackAfrica.SeenfromLondon,ParisorLisbon,Black Africaappearedto theEuropeanobserveras ahomogeneousentity,justastheNorthAmericansregardasLatinAmerican,acontinentwhich extendssouth oftheRio
Grande.
Lookedatfromtheopposite pointofview,i.e.frominside,BlackAfrica,likeLatinAmerica,appearsextremelyvariegated.Itistruethat almostnoneof thepresentStates,whicharethe resultofartificialdivisions,constitutethe soleor evenessentialbasis of thisdiversity.Wewouldbewrongagainto think that thisreality,howeverrecent,hasnotyetleftitsmarkonAfricaand isnotlikely?for betterorforworse?toconsolidateitself,tleastasfarastheforeseeable futureisconcerned.Evenmoreofarealityare some100or200regionsofvaryingwidthswhichreadilycrossthefrontiersof thepresentStates.Theseregionsconstituteyetanotheraspectof thereality; theydonotderive theirdefinitionfromtheirgeographical positionalone,butalsoandinparticularbecauseof thehomogeneousnatureoftheirsocial, cultural,economicandevenpoliticalconditions.Between thesetwo extremes?Africanunityandmicro-regionalvariety?thecontinentcanbedividedintoafewwide,macro-regions.Weproposetodistinguishthree suchregionsandweshalldiscussthebasis for suchadistinction.TraditionalWestAfrica(formerFrenchWestAfrica,Togo,Ghana,Nigeria,SierraLeone,Gambia,Liberia,GuineaBissao),Cameroon,Chad andtheSudan
 
178
SOCIALAND ECONOMIC STUDIEStogetherconstituteafirstregionwhichweshalldescribeasAfrica ofthecolonialeconomy{?conomiedetraite).Weshallhavetogiveaprecisedefinitionofthisconceptwhich,unfortunately,istoooftentreatedlightly.Thisintegratedwholeisclearlydivisibleintothreesub-regions:1)thecoastalsub-regionwhichiseasilyaccessible fromtheoutsideworldandwhichconstitutesthe "rich"area;2)thehinterland,whichmostlyserves as apoolof labourforthecoastalareasandasamarketforthe industrieswhicharebeingestablishedonthecoast;and3)theSudan,whoseparticularcharacteristics will beexaminedlater.ThetraditionalCongoRiver Basin(CongoKinshasa,CongoBrazzaville,GabonandtheCentralAfricanRepublic)formasecondmacro-regionwhichwedefineasAfricaoftheConcession-owning companies.Herealso,weshall havetoexplainhowoverandabovethedifferencesin thepoliciesof the FrenchandBelgiangovernmentsandthe formstakenbythesepolicies, genuinesimilaritiesinthemodeofcolonialexploitationcharacterizethewholeofthezonewhichjustifyitsdemarcation.Theeasternandsouthernpartsofthe continent(Kenya,Uganda,Tanzania,Rwanda,Burundi, Zambia,Malawi,Angola,Mozambique,Zimbabwe, Botswana,LesothoandSouthAfrica)constitutethethirdmacro-regionwhichweshall callAfricaofthelabourreserves.Herealsoweshallseethat,apartfrom thevariednatureofthecountries,theregionwasdevelopedonthe basisofthepolicyofcolonialimperialismaccordingtotheprincipleof "enclosure acts"whichwereappliedtoentirepeoples.Ethiopia,Somalia,Madagascar,R?unionandMauritius,liketheCapeVerdeIslandsontheoppositesideofthecontinent,donotformpartofthesemacro-regions,althoughhere andthereonefindssomeaspectsofone orotherof the threesystemsinquestion.However,theywerecombined with othersystemswhich haveplayedanimportant partintheiractualdevelopment:theslavery-mercantilistsystemoftheCapeVerdeIslands,ReunionandMauritius,the"pseudo-feudal"systemsofEthiopiaandMadagascar.Obviously,questionsoffrontiersbetweentheregionsremain:Katangabelongstotheareaoflabourreserves,Eritreatothatof thecolonialtrade,
etc.
TOWARDSADEFINITIONOF THEPERIODSINAFRICANHISTORY
Theproposeddistinctionisdeliberatelybasedonthe effects of thelastperiodinthehistoryof Africa:thatofcolonization.Weshallthus havetostudyhowthedialecticbetweenthemajorcolonialpolicies,heredividedintothreecategories,andthestructuresinherited frompreviousperiods,wereorganized.Todoso,wehavetogobackintimeanddistinguishbetween fourseparateperiods.Thepre-mercantilistperiodstretchesfrom thebeginninguntilthe 17thcentury.In thecourseofthislonghistory,relationswereforgedbetweenBlackAfrica andtherestof the oldworld,particularlyfromboth ends oftheSahara,between theSavannahcountries(betweenDakar andtheRedSea)and theMediterranean.Socialformationsemergedwhichcannotbe understood iftheyarenotplaced,hereaselsewhere,withinthecontextof allthemultitude of social formationsintheirrelationshipwithoneanother.Duringthatperiod,Africa takenas awhole doesnotappearasinferior,

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->