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Hydraulic Transient Waterhammer

Hydraulic Transient Waterhammer

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12.1INTRODUCTION TO WATERHAMMER AND SURGING 
By definition,
waterhammer 
is a pressure (acoustic) wave phenomenon created by rela-tively sudden changes in the liquid velocity. In pipelines,sudden changes in the flow(velocity) can occur as a result of (1) pump and valve operation in pipelines,(2) vaporpocket collapse,or (3) even the impact of water following the rapid expulsion of air outof a vent or a partially open valve. Although the name waterhammer may appear to be amisnomer in that it implies only water and the connotation of a “hammering“ noise,it hasbecome a generic term for pressure wave effects in liquids. Strictly speaking,waterham-mer can be directly related to the compressibility of the liquid—primarily water in thishandbook. For slow changes in pipeline flow for which pressure waves have little to noeffect,the unsteady flow phenomenon is called
surging
.Potentially,waterhammer can create serious consequences for pipeline designers if notproperly recognized and addressed by analysis and design modifications. There have beennumerous pipeline failures of varying degrees and resulting repercussions of loss of prop-erty and life. Three principal design tactics for mitigation of waterhammer are (1) alterationof pipeline properties such as profile and diameter,(2) implementation of improved valveand pump control procedures,and (3) design and installation of surge control devices.In this chapter,waterhammer and surging are defined and discussed in detail with ref-erence to the two dominant sources of waterhammer—pump and/or valve operation.Detailed discussion of the hydraulic aspects of both valves and pumps and their effect onhydraulic transients will be presented. The undesirable and unwanted,but often potential-ly possible,event of liquid column separation and rejoining are a common justification forsurge protection devices. Both the beneficial and detrimental effects of free (entrained orentrapped) air in water pipelines will be discussed with reference to waterhammer andsurging. Finally,the efficacy of various surge protection devices for mitigation of water-hammer is included.
CHAPTER 12
HYDRAULIC TRANSIENTDESIGN FORPIPELINE SYSTEMS
C. Samuel Martin
School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringGeorgia Institute of Technology Atlanta,Georgia
12.1
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
 
12.2FUNDAMENTALS OF WATERHAMMER AND SURGE 
The fundamentals of waterhammer,an elastic process,and surging,an incompressiblephenomenon,are both developed on the basis of the basic conservational relationships of physics or fluid mechanics. The acoustic velocity stems from mass balance (continuity),while the fundamental waterhammer equation of Joukowsky originates from the applica-tion of linear momentum [see Eq. (12.2)].
12.2.1Definitions
Some of the terms frequently used in waterhammer are defined as follows.
Waterhamme
.A pressure wave phenomenon for which liquid compressibility playsa role.
Surging.
An unsteady phenomenon governed solely by inertia. Often termed
massoscillation
or referred to as either
rigid column
or
inelastic effect 
.
Liquid column separation.
The formation of vapor cavities and their subsequent col-lapse and associated waterhammer on rejoining.
Entrapped air.
Free air located in a pipeline as a result of incomplete filling,inade-quate venting,leaks under vacuum,air entrained from pump intake vortexing,andother sources.
Acoustic velocity.
The speed of a waterhammer or pressure wave in a pipeline.
Joukowsky equation.
Fundamental relationship relating waterhammer pressurechange with velocity change and acoustic velocity. Strictly speaking,this equationonly valid for sudden flow changes.
12.2.2Acoustic Velocity
For wave propagation in liquid-filled pipes the
acoustic (sonic) velocity
is modified by thepipe wall elasticity by varying degrees,depending upon the elastic properties of the wallmaterial and the relative wall thickness. The expression for the wave speed is
a
ϭ ϭ
(12.1)where
 E 
is the elastic modulus of the pipe wall,
 D
is the inside diameter of the pipe,
e
isthe wall thickness,and
a
o
is the acoustic velocity in the liquid medium. In a very rigid pipeor in a tank,or in large water bodies,the acoustic velocity
a
reduces to the well
ϭ
knownrelationship
a
ϭ
a
o
ϭ
͙ 
(
 ෆ 
 / 
ρ
 ෆ 
)
 ෆ
. For water
ϭ
2.19 GPa (318,000 psi) and
ρ
ϭ
998 kg/m
3
(1.936 slug/ft
3
),yielding a value o
a
o
ϭ
1483 m/sec (4865 ft/sec),a value many times thatof any liquid velocity
.
12.2.3Joukowsky (Waterhammer) Equation
There is always a pressure change
 p
associated with the rapid velocity change
acrossa waterhammer (pressure) wave. The relationship between
 p
and
from the basicphysics of linear momentum yields the well-known
 Joukowsky equationa
o
ᎏᎏ
Ί 
1
 ๶
ϩ
 ๶
 De
 ๶
 ๶
 E 
 ๶
͙ 
 ෆ 
 / 
ρ
 ෆ 
ᎏᎏ
Ί 
1
 ๶
ϩ
 ๶ 
 De
 ๶
 ๶
 E 
 ๶
12.2
Chapter Twelve
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT DESIGN FOR PIPELINE SYSTEMS
 
 p
ϭϪ
ρ
a
(12.2)where
ρ
is the liquid mass density,and
a
is the sonic velocity of the pressure wave in thefluid medium in the conduit. Conveniently using the concept of head,the
 Joukowsky head rise
for instantaneous valve closure is
 H 
ϭ
ρ
g p
ϭϪ
ρ
a
ρ
g
ϭ
ag
o
(12.3)The compliance of a conduit or pipe wall can have a significant effect on modificationof (1) the acoustic velocity,and (2) any resultant waterhammer,as can be shown from Eq.(12.1) and Eq. (12.2),respectively. For simple waterhammer waves for which only radialpipe motion (
hoop stress
) effects are considered,the germane physical pipe properties areYoung's elastic modulus (
 E 
) and Poisson ratio (
µ
). Table 12.1 summarizes appropriate val-ues of these two physical properties for some common pipe materials.The effect of the elastic modulus (
 E 
) on the acoustic velocity in water-filled circularpipes for a range of the ratio of internal pipe diameter to wall thickness (
 D
 / 
e
) is shown inFig. 12.1 for various pipe materials.
12.3HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VALVE
Valves are integral elements of any piping system used for the handling and transport of liquids. Their primary purposes are flow control,energy dissipation,and isolation of por-tions of the piping system for maintenance. It is important for the purposes of design andfinal operation to understand the hydraulic characteristics of valves under both steady andunsteady flow conditions. Examples of dynamic conditions are direct opening or closingof valves by a motor,the response of a swing check valve under unsteady conditions,andthe action of hydraulic servovalves. The hydraulic characteristics of valves under eithernoncavitating or cavitating conditions vary considerably from one type of valve design toanother. Moreover,valve characteristics also depend upon particular valve design for aspecial function,upon absolute size,on manufacturer as well as the type of pipe fittingemployed. In this section the fundamentals of valve hydraulics are presented in terms of pressure drop (headloss) characteristics. Typical flow characteristics of selected valvetypes of control—gate,ball,and butterfly,are presented.
Hydraulic Transient Design for Pipeline Systems
12.3TABLE 12.1
Physical Properties of Common Pipe Materials
 MaterialYoung's ModulusPoisson's Ratio E (GPa)
µ
Asbestos cement2324Cast iron801700.250.27Concrete14300.100.15Concrete (reinforced)3060Ductile iron1720.30Polyethylene0.70.80.46PVC (polyvinyl chloride)2.43.50.46Steel2002070.30
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT DESIGN FOR PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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