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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

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Published by Aria7
History of ancient Egypt
History of ancient Egypt

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Published by: Aria7 on Oct 30, 2012
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Ancient Egypt, by George RawlinsonThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Ancient EgyptAuthor: George RawlinsonOther: Arthur GilmanRelease Date: April 20, 2005 [EBook #15663]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: Unicode UTF-8*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ANCIENT EGYPT ***Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Susan Skinner andDistributed Proofreaders Europe at http://dp.rastko.net.[Illustration: GREAT HALL OF COLUMNS AT KARNAK (RESTORED.)]ANCIENT EGYPTBYGEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A.CAMDEN PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD ANDCORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF TURIN; AUTHOR OF "THE FIVEGREAT MONARCHIES OF THE ANCIENT EASTERN WORLD." ETC., ETC. _WITH THE COLLABORATION OF_ ARTHUR GILMAN, M.A. AUTHOR OF "THE STORY OF ROME," ETC. _TENTH EDITION_ LONDON T. FISHER UNWIN
PATERNOSTER SQUARE, E.C.COPYRIGHT BY T. FISHER UNWIN, 1886 (For Great Britain)TO REGINALD STUART POOLE, KEEPER OF COINS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM,AND CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE, IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OFMUCH HELP AND MUCH PLEASURE DERIVED FROM HIS EGYPTIAN LABOURS.CONTENTS.I.THE LAND OF EGYPT 1-22General shape of Egypt, 1--Chief divisions: twofold division, 2;threefold division, 3--The Egypt of the maps unreal, 4--Egypt, "the giftof the river," in what sense, 5, 6--The Fayoum, 7--- Egyptianspeculations concerning the Nile, 7, 8--The Nile not beautiful, 8--Sizeof Egypt, 9--Fertility, 10--Geographical situation, 11, 12--The Nile, asa means of communication, 12, 13, Phenomena of the inundation, 13,14--Climate of Egypt. 14--Geology, 15--Flora and Fauna, 16, 17--Generalmonotony, 19--Exceptions, 20-22.II.THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT 23-45Origin of the Egyptians, 23--Phenomena of their language and type,24--Two marked varieties of physique. 25--Two types of character: themelancholic, 25, 27: the gay, 27-29--Character of the Egyptian religion:polytheism, 30, 31--Animal worship, 31-33--Worship of the monarch,33--Osirid saga, 34, 35--Evil gods, 36--Local cults, 37--Esotericreligion, 38; how reconciled with the popular belief, 39--Conviction ofa life after death, 40, 41--Moral code, 41-43--Actual state of morals,43--Ranks of society, 44, 45.III.THE DAWN OF HISTORY 45-64Early Egyptian myths: the Seb and Thoth legends, 46, 47--The destructionof mankind by Ra, 48--Traditions concerning M'na, or Menes, 48--Site ofMemphis, 49--Great Temple of Phthah at Memphis, 50, 51--Names ofMemphis, 51--Question of the existence of M'na, 52, 53--Supposedsuccessors of M'na, 54--First historical Egyptian, Sneferu, 55--TheEgypt of his time, 56--Hieroglyphics, 57--Tombs, 58--Incipient pyramids,59, 60--Social condition of the people, 60--Manners, 61--Position ofwomen, 62-64.
IV.THE PYRAMID BUILDERS 65-94Difficult to realize the conception of a great pyramid, 65--Egyptianidea of one, 66--Number of pyramids in Egypt: the Principal Three,67--Description of the "Third Pyramid," 67-71; of the "Second Pyramid,"72; of the "First" or "Great Pyramid," 75-81--The traditional builders,Khufu, Shafra, and Menkaura, 82; the pyramids their tombs, 82--Grandeurof Khufu's conception, 83--Cruelty involved in it, 84, 85--The builders'hopes not realized, 85, 86--Skill displayed in the construction,86--Magnificence of the architectural effect, 89--Inferiority of the"Third Pyramid," 90--Continuance of the pyramid period, 91-94.V.THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER, AND THE EARLY THEBAN KINGS 95-119Shift of the seat of power--site of Thebes, 95--Origin of the name ofThebes, 96--Earliest known Theban king, Antef I., 97--His successors,Mentu-hotep I. and "Antef the Great," 98--Other Antefs and Mentu-hoteps,98, 99--Sankh-ka-ra and his fleet, 99, 100--Dynasty of Usurtasens andAmenemhats: spirit of their civilization, 100, 101--Reign of AmenemhatI., 102--His wars and hunting expeditions, 103, 104--Usurtasen I.: hiswars, 105--His sculptures and architectural works, 106--His obelisk,107, 109--Reign of Amenemhat II.: tablet belonging to his time, 109,110--Usurtasen II. and his conquests, 111, 112.VI.THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS 113-123Dangers connected with the inundation of the Nile, twofold, 113--Anexcessive inundation, 114; a defective one, 115--Sufferings from thesecauses under Amenemhat III., 115, 116--Possible storage of water,117--Amenemhat's reservoir, the "Lake Mœris," 118--Doubts as to itsdimensions, 119, 120--Amenemhat's "Labyrinth," 121--His pyramid, andname of Ra-n-mat, 122, 123.VII.ABRAHAM IN EGYPT 124-131Wanderings of the Patriarch, 124--Necessity which drove him into Egypt,125--Passage of the Desert, 126--A dread anxiety unfaithfully met,127--Reception on the frontier, and removal of Sarah to the court,128--Abraham's material well-being, 129--The Pharaoh restores Sarah,130--Probable date of the visit, 130--Other immigrants, 131.VIII.THE GREAT INVASION--THE HYKSOS OR SHEPHERD KINGS--JOSEPH AND APEPI132-146Exemption of Egypt hitherto from foreign attack, 132--Threateningmovements among the populations of Asia, 133--Manetho's tale of the

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