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Performance Enhancement of Wireless Ad Hoc Network Using Cross Layer and Diversity Scheme

Performance Enhancement of Wireless Ad Hoc Network Using Cross Layer and Diversity Scheme

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 16, Issue 2, October 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 16, Issue 2, October 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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Published by: Journal of Telecommunications on Oct 31, 2012
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 © 2012 JOT
Performance Enhancement of Wireless AdHoc Network Using Cross Layer and DiversityScheme
A. M . E. ALSAYAH, S. J. Muhammad, U. C. Ahamefula and S. H. Hadya.
Ad hoc network provides efficient and innovative telecommunication technology scenarios where infrastructures are not access-ible. This unique form of wireless network facilitates the use of reliable and efficient information and communication system in areas that areconstrained by fixed line networks. However, numerous challenges limits its mobility leading to interference with other unpredictable radiostation channel that potentially disrupts its network links and proper transportation as significant fraction of packets are lost resulting and orare received as erroneous. To overcome these limitations, the present study exploites potential technique that detects and uses reliable routeamong which include cross layer and diversity technique. The use of cross-layer measurements could be to detect various reliable routeswhile multi-path diversity improves the reliability of packet and route operating robustness. Integration of these techniques could potentiallyimprove the reliability and effectiveness of wireless ad hoc network by leveraging interactions between spectrums of network layers. Thepresent study provides developmental phases for cross layer ad hoc network protocols which are reliably supportive to congestion controland tolerant to delayed network. The study further investigated diversity schemes with focus on network coding and coding erasure imple-mentation
Index Terms
Ad hoc network, Coding erasure, Cross layer, Network coding, Routing protocols.
1 I
obile wireless ad hoc network (MANET) representsa dynamic reconfigurable organized wireless net-work of mobile nodes with no need for central adminis-trative infrastructure. Nodes used in MANET establishcommunication structure instantly as individual nodemoves arbitrarily. Change in the node topological linkcauses mobility of all nodes to act as router while for-warding unrelated packets [1]. Enhanced performance ofMANETs makes it viable for use in wide range of applica-tions such as recovery during disaster and for contentdistribution communications such as used for IP, VoIP, TVand P2P TV. The flexibility in the performance of MANETprovides an ideal communication architectural networkwhere fixed communication infrastructures are restricted.Viable potentials of MANET network allows their usedfor personal communication, in battlefield, for disasterrelief and as vehicular networks [2], [3] [4], [5]. Ad hocnetworks technology requires no fixed infrastructure asuser devices communicate through its arbitrary and tem-porary network topologies that esablishes its infrastruc-tural topology base on a stable traditional WLAN [5], [6],[7], [8] and [9]] that is potentially dynamic in a MANET[10] and has been extensively been supportive to emer-gency response telecommunication network [4], [7], [8],[11].Mobility results to change in the network topolo-gy and frequently breaks communication link. Moreover,shared medium in wireless causes interference, conten-tion and congestion which collectively amount to increasein erroneous packet making it difficulty to implement anefficient end-to-end control. Solution to these problems isvisible from the integration of cross layer feedback withlower layer comprising physical and MAC layer whichcan potentially detect reliable links [3], [4]. In addition,flow of information from upper layer is helpful in detect-ing transmission methods. However, temporal diversitysuch as its network coding and coding erasure also pro-vide alternative pathway to ensure efficient and reliablecommunication.Therefore the present study on routing in ad hocnetworks explored cross layer interactions as well as thediversities in ad hoc network which are needed to under-stand and enhance the operational principles of an MA-NET characteristic features specifically fot protocols thatexploits cross layer interaction with diversities in networkcoding and erasure.
2 R
Routing in telecommunication network engineering en-tails mechanism that are used to direct data flow packetfrom source to the required destination. Various routing
is MSc student at the Department of Telecommunica-
tion Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering
(FKEKK), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).
S. J. Muhammad is a senior lecturer at the Department of TelecommunicationEngineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering(FKEKK), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).
U. C. Ahamefula is a physicist (PhD) at School of Applied Physiscs, Facultyof Science and Technology National University of Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Se-langor D.E Malaysia.
S.H. Hadya is a PhD candidate at Faculty of Computer Sciemce and Mathe-matics, Universiti Technologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Da-rul Ehsan, Malaysia.
protocols have been used for different algorithms [12].The topology of ad hoc wireless networks is often con-straints by factors such as maximum path capacities atreduced costs. Although different routing protocols andalgorithms have been used for ad hoc networks, the use isapplication-specific. For instance, ad hoc network re-quires no fixed topology which makes managing itsrouting an important task to maintain service quality. Thisadds to complexities of routing in ad hoc networks com-pare to routing networks in fixed topology [13]. In MA-NET, three major routing protocols classifications are con-strained specifically base on their operational scenario torealized mobile network [10]. Three common protocols inuse comprise proactive routing, source-initiated on-demand routing and
hybrid routing protocols.
2.1 Proactive Routing Protocol
Proactive routing algorithm often referred to as table dri-ven algorithm operate on a frequently updated routingtable to keep every node in the network active [14]. Thisenables the routing tables to always be available when apacket is needed to be sent through the node whose routeis detected by certain algorithm. Proactive routing proto-cols are constrained by dynamic maintenance nature oftheir network topology which requires large network bandwidth [15] such as found in destination sequenceddistance vector routing (DSDV) [16], cluster-head gate-way switch-routing (CGSR) [16] as well as in optimized-link-state routing protocol (OLSR) [17].
2.2 Source initiated on-demand Routing Protocol
On-demand routing protocol is often referred to as reac-tive protocol. Its paths are designed out of demand tosend packets and require no constant updating of therouting tables. However, the path discovery algorithmused for sending packets is initiated by source node. In-formation is resent back through constructed path to thesource node as soon as it reaches its destination node.This form of routing protocol use little bandwidth com-pare to proactive routing protocol that require more timeto construct a route to resend information from its sourcethrough to its destination nodes. Typical algorithm usedincludes ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) [18]and dynamic source routing (DSR) [19].
Hybrid Routing Protocols
Hybrid as its name implies is a form of routing protocolthat combines the advantages of proactive and source on-demand routing protocols which aims at minimizingweaknesses in the individual routing protocol and areused as MANET routing protocol [12]. Zone routing pro-tocol (ZRP) is borne out hybrid routing protocol and usesproactive routing for neighboring nodes among specificnumber of hops. Routing for farther destinations usesreactive path discovery [10], [11], [12].
3 P
Cross Layer Performance Technique
raditionally, OSI communication model have strict boundaries layers. However, using cross layer approachcould break the strict boundaries to transporting feedbackthereby improving the overall protocol performance ofthe MANET network [20]. Additionally, cross layer feed- back provides updated quality information to neighbor-ing layers making it possible for the routing protocol tocope with the changes in the environment and the flowtransmission [21].
Enhancement Incorporated with ODMRPwith Motion Adaptive Refresh
Most MANET routing protocols operate using on de-mand architect base on which routing information ex-changes when needed. On demand routing protocols(ODMRP) uses two way techniques to select appropriatepath to sender or receiver. Senders, first broadcasts re-quest packet for protocol route through to the network asreceivers sends back reply to route packet. However, al-ternative destination route could be searched upon detec-tion of disconnection. Adaptive demand driven multicastrouting (ADMR) [22] and multicast ad hoc on demanddistance vector network protocol (MAODV) [23] are typi-cal examples of on demand multicast protocol that usesthis technique. Building a multicast in-between sourceand receivers helps in detecting a broken link while theuse of ODMRP enables the reconstruction of the forward-ing mesh in a short interval [24]. The periodic broadcast-ing offered by ODMRP provides robust routing and routerefresh which is important performance enhancementparameter for the protocol efficiency.In situation where the refresh period is short,control packets more than needed are usually generatedfor mesh construction so as to enable the ODMRP to keepwith network dynamics that avoid link breakage resultingfrom packet losses [25], [26]. High performing ODMRPincorporated with adaptive route refresher drive link
 breakages base on receiver’s reports
through the use ofsimple and uniform recovery receiver scheme [25].Long refresh interval causes isolated node tomomentarily lose data in wait for subsequent route re-construction and maintenance. To connect back a brokenroute, need arises for a localize node to perform routerecovery to facilitate proactive reattachment to a forward-ing mesh or for route refreshment from informationsource [27]. These performance enhancement processesare facilitated through the use of cross layer technique.Typical illustration can be found in E-ODMRP flow in-formation system via application layers that collect linkinformation through lower layer, PHY and MAC layerswhile in ODMRP lower packet is delivered in E-ODMRPunder slight load as packet losses are used as an indicatorfor link breakage. However, overhead is reduced (about90%) causing better information delivery at high load anduses ODMRP as a basic protocol for ADMR, E-ODMRPand PathchODMRP [27].
On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol(ODMRP)
ODMRP [24] requires query and reply section to forward-ing mesh. A source sending data broadcasts and are in-cluded in the query packet allowing for constituted net-work nodes to stores upstream addresses so as to facili-tate reverse rebroadcasting. Receiver develops and broad-casts reply packet to surrounding neighbors which is re-layed back to the source making the reversed nodes aforwarding mesh that delivers data after which the sourcesimultaneously joins query packet to refresh the forward-ing mesh. Rejoining of the node to mesh receivers re-quires waiting for response to join query packet. Howev-er, in ODMRP, soft-state technique reconstructs membergroups explicitly controls messages. Join queries are ter-minated when node has no packet and does not respondto receivers messages making forwarding nodes non-forwarders. This time is referred to as timeout and re-quires multiple refresh [26].
3.4 Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing(ADMR)
Construction of ADMR route follows the same step as inODMRP (forwarding mesh through query and replyingpacket control exchange) [22]. ADMR differs in that itsforwarding structure is designed for individual senderwhereas in ODMRP, group shares mesh. Secondly, ADMRrefresh route every tens seconds trying to repair localpath breakages and uses passive scheme noted with un-necessary multicast branches to detect broken link and tomonitor traffic pattern.
Motion Adaptive Refresh
E-ODMRP is ODMRP adaptive refresh that enhances mo- bility through the creation of a forwarding mesh initiated by a source. This operation follows the same pattern inODMRP to transmit data packets through to controllingof signaled information referred in this study as jointquery packets which the receives sends back to the sourceusing intermediate nodes to transmit non-duplicated datapackets. E-ODMRP sources refreshes at interval and theforwarded mesh vary from minimum prefixed to maxi-mum via adaptive refresh [26], [27], [28].Adaptive refresh request estimates route lifetimewhen recovery fails and detects route breakages. Themaximum period
establishes forwarding mesh functionfor receivers and is recorded in route refresh packetswhich are delivered through to the network sources. Thenetwork delivery sources reverse the refresh rate which is
adapted to route’s lifetime. Importantly, E
-ODMRP re-freshes forwarding interconnections before they break.Refresh request packets is sent at interval during whenthe route refreshes scheme in an attempt to reduce slow-ing down of the overhead refresh update [29]. Decreaserefresh rate in the maximum limit could result to shortrefresh interval which could potentially lead to waste inchannel bandwidths which reduces the performance ofnetwork. Local recovery contributes to maintaining a dy-namic network in E-ODMRP with increase in efficiency inlow and high mobility.Although network connection in ODMRP and E-ODMRP is similar, behavior of the nodes differs as a re-sult of differences in network maintenance. Therefore theimplementation of a passive acknowledges (ACK) re-quires that every nodes in E-ODMRP network and inter-mediate nodes forwards and receives non-duplicates datapackets
indicating sender’s node.
Forwarder lifetime isabsent in E-ODMRP while in ODMRP, forwarders time-out exist and are set at 3-times of the refresh interval anddischarges when forwarding expires [27]. The intermediate node in E-ODMRP forwards data packets usingpassive ACK network mechanisms and is as illustrated inFig. 1.
3.6 Link breakage detection and local recovery
Receivers and intermediate notes can be isolated frominterconnected network resulting from mobility. In situa-tion where nodes are disconnected from source, it is im-portant to perform local recovery so as to reconnect to theproactively mesh. Disconnection/breakage and malfunc-tioning link during traffic is detected and monitored us-ing E-ODMRP. This is achieved by estimating packet ar-rival interval from application and informing the receiverthrough recording the signaled information source to the join query packet. Based on which individual nodes cal-culate and update packet arrival interval before receivingsubsequent join query. A node is detached if it does notreceive data during packet arrival. The mesh starts recov-ery which is similar to receiver join processes except thatit could send dummy packets. Dummy packet is generat-ed and transmitted via sub tree when receiver join packetis received from source node which is a performancemeasure to prevent explosion of recovery [28]. Nodesdummy packets waits for subsequent packet recoverywhen new packet is received from the application beforetimeout. However, the source resends dummy packetwhen the timer expires and removes information aboutmulticast group.
Fig. 1. E-ODMRP interconnections (queries and reply flow).

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