protocols have been used for different algorithms .The topology of ad hoc wireless networks is often con-straints by factors such as maximum path capacities atreduced costs. Although different routing protocols andalgorithms have been used for ad hoc networks, the use isapplication-specific. For instance, ad hoc network re-quires no fixed topology which makes managing itsrouting an important task to maintain service quality. Thisadds to complexities of routing in ad hoc networks com-pare to routing networks in fixed topology . In MA-NET, three major routing protocols classifications are con-strained specifically base on their operational scenario torealized mobile network . Three common protocols inuse comprise proactive routing, source-initiated on-demand routing and
hybrid routing protocols.
2.1 Proactive Routing Protocol
Proactive routing algorithm often referred to as table dri-ven algorithm operate on a frequently updated routingtable to keep every node in the network active . Thisenables the routing tables to always be available when apacket is needed to be sent through the node whose routeis detected by certain algorithm. Proactive routing proto-cols are constrained by dynamic maintenance nature oftheir network topology which requires large network bandwidth  such as found in destination sequenceddistance vector routing (DSDV) , cluster-head gate-way switch-routing (CGSR)  as well as in optimized-link-state routing protocol (OLSR) .
2.2 Source initiated on-demand Routing Protocol
On-demand routing protocol is often referred to as reac-tive protocol. Its paths are designed out of demand tosend packets and require no constant updating of therouting tables. However, the path discovery algorithmused for sending packets is initiated by source node. In-formation is resent back through constructed path to thesource node as soon as it reaches its destination node.This form of routing protocol use little bandwidth com-pare to proactive routing protocol that require more timeto construct a route to resend information from its sourcethrough to its destination nodes. Typical algorithm usedincludes ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR) .
Hybrid Routing Protocols
Hybrid as its name implies is a form of routing protocolthat combines the advantages of proactive and source on-demand routing protocols which aims at minimizingweaknesses in the individual routing protocol and areused as MANET routing protocol . Zone routing pro-tocol (ZRP) is borne out hybrid routing protocol and usesproactive routing for neighboring nodes among specificnumber of hops. Routing for farther destinations usesreactive path discovery , , .
Cross Layer Performance Technique
raditionally, OSI communication model have strict boundaries layers. However, using cross layer approachcould break the strict boundaries to transporting feedbackthereby improving the overall protocol performance ofthe MANET network . Additionally, cross layer feed- back provides updated quality information to neighbor-ing layers making it possible for the routing protocol tocope with the changes in the environment and the flowtransmission .
Enhancement Incorporated with ODMRPwith Motion Adaptive Refresh
Most MANET routing protocols operate using on de-mand architect base on which routing information ex-changes when needed. On demand routing protocols(ODMRP) uses two way techniques to select appropriatepath to sender or receiver. Senders, first broadcasts re-quest packet for protocol route through to the network asreceivers sends back reply to route packet. However, al-ternative destination route could be searched upon detec-tion of disconnection. Adaptive demand driven multicastrouting (ADMR)  and multicast ad hoc on demanddistance vector network protocol (MAODV)  are typi-cal examples of on demand multicast protocol that usesthis technique. Building a multicast in-between sourceand receivers helps in detecting a broken link while theuse of ODMRP enables the reconstruction of the forward-ing mesh in a short interval . The periodic broadcast-ing offered by ODMRP provides robust routing and routerefresh which is important performance enhancementparameter for the protocol efficiency.In situation where the refresh period is short,control packets more than needed are usually generatedfor mesh construction so as to enable the ODMRP to keepwith network dynamics that avoid link breakage resultingfrom packet losses , . High performing ODMRPincorporated with adaptive route refresher drive link
breakages base on receiver’s reports
through the use ofsimple and uniform recovery receiver scheme .Long refresh interval causes isolated node tomomentarily lose data in wait for subsequent route re-construction and maintenance. To connect back a brokenroute, need arises for a localize node to perform routerecovery to facilitate proactive reattachment to a forward-ing mesh or for route refreshment from informationsource . These performance enhancement processesare facilitated through the use of cross layer technique.Typical illustration can be found in E-ODMRP flow in-formation system via application layers that collect linkinformation through lower layer, PHY and MAC layerswhile in ODMRP lower packet is delivered in E-ODMRPunder slight load as packet losses are used as an indicatorfor link breakage. However, overhead is reduced (about90%) causing better information delivery at high load anduses ODMRP as a basic protocol for ADMR, E-ODMRPand PathchODMRP .