Early kiln systems for cement clinker manufacture were based on shaft kiln systems.However,asthese are oflittle relevance to the world at large,this chapter will deal with rotary kilns only.The first rotary kiln was introduced to the cement industry by Frederik Ransome (1885) when hetook out a patent in England titled “Improvements in Manufacture ofCement.”The first oftheserotary kilns were up to 2.0 m in diameter and 25 m long,with an “enormous”production of30 to50 ton/day.Today,some kilns are producing as much in a day (>10,000 tpd) as these kilnsproduced in a year.
Wet Process Kilns
The long wet process kiln,with a length to diameter ratio (L/D) ofup to 40,was the main clinkerproducing plant for most ofthe 20th century.It is a relatively simple process,with the main advan-tage ofslurry preparation being the eases ofmilling,handling,blending,storage,pumping,andmetering.It is also less prone to low level dust emission.In wet process systems,the material preheat system is metal chains hanging in the cold end ofthekiln,which absorb heat from gases and heat the material which flows over them.The chain actually provides a greater surface area for contact between hot gases and the material clinging to thechains.
Kiln Burning Systems
C l i n k e r R a w m e a l P o r t i o n s b y w e i g h t
Figure 3.1.2.Clinker reactions in raw meal as a function oftemperature.