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Kiln Burning Systems

Kiln Burning Systems



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Published by Nael
You will find all you need about kiln system here in this file. Very good document for new/ fresh production engineers and operators.
You will find all you need about kiln system here in this file. Very good document for new/ fresh production engineers and operators.

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Published by: Nael on Oct 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Once raw materials have been selected and blended,and ground and homogenized into a fine anduniform kiln feed,they must then be subjected to enough heat to allow the clinkering reactions toproceed.This is the pyroprocessing stage ofcement manufacture,beginning with the kiln feedmaterial extracted from storage and weighed and transported to the kiln,and finishing with theclinker from the cooler going to clinker storage.A schematic diagram on different stages ofcementmanufacturing is shown in Figure 3.1.1
*Managing Director,FCT Group ofCompanies,20 Stirling Street,Thebarton,South Australia 5031ph + 61 8 8352 9999,http://www.fctinternational.com
Raw mill from storagePre-heater+ CalcinerFeed rateFuelFuelTo clinker storageKiln rotationControlsystemKilnCooler
Figure 3.1.1.Pyroprocessing system.
Chapter 3.1
by Con G.Manias*
Kiln Burning Systems
The main chemical reactions to produce the calcium silicates that later give cement its bondingstrength occur in the kiln system.There is a combination ofendothermic and exothermic reactionsoccurring in an extremely complicated chemical reaction sequence.The raw material composition,mineralogical composition and the time and temperature profile ofthese materials in the kilndetermine the ultimate composition and mineralogy ofthe clinker,which in turn determines theperformance ofthe cement produced.The pyroprocessing stage is generally regarded as the heart ofthe cement-making process.It is thestage in which most ofthe operating costs ofcement manufacture appear,and is also therefore thestage where most ofthe opportunities for process improvement exist.There are many different kiln system designs and enhancements,but they are all in essenceperforming the following material transformation,in order from the feed end:1.Evaporating free water,at temperatures up to 100°C2.Removal ofadsorbed water in clay materials100°C - 300°C3.Removal ofchemically bound water450°C - 900°C4.Calcination ofcarbonate materials700°C - 850°C5.Formation ofC
S,aluminates and ferrites800°C - 1250°C6.Formation ofliquid phase melt>1250°C7.Formation ofC
S1330°C - 1450°C8.Cooling ofclinker to solidify liquid phase1300°C - 1240°C9.Final clinker microstructure frozen in clinker<1200°C10.Clinker cooled in cooler1250°C - 100°CFigure 3.1.2 shows the transformation reactions taking place at different stages ofraw materialpyroprocessing.On the gas flow side,the sequence from the firing end is as follows:1.Ambient air preheated by hot clinker from kiln20°C up to 60C to 1100°C2.Fuel burns in preheated combustion air in kiln2000°C to 2400°C3.Combustion gases and excess air travel along kiln,transferring heat to kiln charge and kiln refractories2400°C down to 1000°C4.Preheating system for further recovery ofheat fromkiln gases into the material charge in the kiln system1000°C down to 350°C to 100°C5.Further heat recovery from gases for drying ofraw materials or coalAll kiln systems aspire to optimize heat exchange between the gas streams and material streams atvarious stages to minimize waste heat and maximize thermal efficiency.
Innovations in Portland Cement Manufacturing 
Early kiln systems for cement clinker manufacture were based on shaft kiln systems.However,asthese are oflittle relevance to the world at large,this chapter will deal with rotary kilns only.The first rotary kiln was introduced to the cement industry by Frederik Ransome (1885) when hetook out a patent in England titled “Improvements in Manufacture ofCement.The first oftheserotary kilns were up to 2.0 m in diameter and 25 m long,with an “enormous”production of30 to50 ton/day.Today,some kilns are producing as much in a day (>10,000 tpd) as these kilnsproduced in a year.
Wet Process Kilns
The long wet process kiln,with a length to diameter ratio (L/D) ofup to 40,was the main clinkerproducing plant for most ofthe 20th century.It is a relatively simple process,with the main advan-tage ofslurry preparation being the eases ofmilling,handling,blending,storage,pumping,andmetering.It is also less prone to low level dust emission.In wet process systems,the material preheat system is metal chains hanging in the cold end ofthekiln,which absorb heat from gases and heat the material which flows over them.The chain actually provides a greater surface area for contact between hot gases and the material clinging to thechains.
Kiln Burning Systems 
AliteBeliteCrLiquidFree lime
   C   l   i  n   k  e  r   R  a  w  m  e  a   l   P  o  r   t   i  o  n  s   b  y  w  e   i  g   h   t
OClay mineralsC
Figure 3.1.2.Clinker reactions in raw meal as a function oftemperature.

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