Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
P. 1
Social choice, uncertainty about external costs and trade-off between intergenerational environmental impacts.

Social choice, uncertainty about external costs and trade-off between intergenerational environmental impacts.

Ratings: (0)|Views: 6|Likes:
Published by Patricio Leonardo
Ecological Economics 57 (2006) 282 – 305 www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon

The emblematic case of gas-based energy supply decentralization
Ecological Economics 57 (2006) 282 – 305 www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon

The emblematic case of gas-based energy supply decentralization

More info:

Published by: Patricio Leonardo on Oct 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/04/2012

pdf

text

original

 
AEANW[G[
[dkgan k`dgko. uekozragerw ajdur oprozean kd{r{ aeb rzabo)dcc  jorxooe gerozhoeozargdean oesgzdeioeran gi|akr{6R`o oijnoiargk ka{o dc ha{)ja{ob oeozhw{u||nw bokoerzangvargde
Czaeko{kd Hunnıl&
 Goco)Ge{rgruro cdz Oeozhw aeb Oesgzdeioeran Okdedigk{ aeb \dngkw. _egsoz{gral Jdkkdeg. Sgano Cgng||orrg 7. :<1:: Ignaed. Granw
Zokogsob 7 Faeuazw :<<2= zokogsob ge zosg{ob cdzi 2 A|zgn :<<?= akko|rob 1; A|zgn :<<?Asagnajno dengeo :2 Fueo :<<?
Aj{rzakr
R`o |ozcdziaeko dc r`o {iann earuzan ha{)cgzob |dxoz rok`edndhgo{ `a{ gi|zdsob zoiazmajnw dsoz r`o na{r bokabo% R`g{`a{ azdu{ob r`o gerozo{r dc d|ozardz{. zohunardz{ aeb nohg{nardz{ ge earuzan ha{)cgzob bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde (ha{)cgzob BH'.eaionw. r`o gerohzarob dz {raeb)andeo u{o dc {iann. idbunaz ha{)cgzob |dxoz hoeozargde knd{o rd r`o |dger dc kde{ui|rgde a{ae anrozeargso rd nazho |dxoz hoeozargde aeb onokrzgkgrw rzae{|dzr dsoz ndeh bg{raeko{% Ha{)cgzob BH kae |zdsgbo ae gi|dzraer  joeocgr czdi r`o oesgzdeioeran |dger dc sgox% Ku{rdioz |zdpgigrw. ge cakr. hzoarnw gekzoa{o{ r`o |droergan cdz kdijgeob `oar aeb |dxoz hoeozargde. gesdnsgeh oeozhw {asgeh aeb zobukob hzooe`du{o ha{ (H@H' oig{{gde{% _ecdzruearonw r`g{ mgeb dc bokoerzangvob {u||nw an{d borozigeo{ `gh`oz ede)H@H oig{{gde{ (iagenw ED
p
. kdi|azob rd r`o jo{r asagnajno koerzan |dxoz rok`edndhw' x`gk` dkkuz ge uzjae azoa{ (`gh` |d|unarob' ge{roab dc oprza)uzjae azoa{ (x`ozo nazho |dxoz |naer{ azo hoeozannwndkarob'% Gr g{ r`ozocdzo bgccgkunr rd iamo a zongajno osanuargde dc ha{)cgzob BH oesgzdeioeran joeocgr{ xgr`dur kdi|azgehkoerzangvob aeb bokoerzangvob idbon{ ge rozi{ dc oprozean kd{r{. r`ar g{ xgr`dur ae aeanw{g{ x`gk` anndx{ u{ rd kdi|azo r`ooproer dc hndjan aeb ndkan‛zohgdean gi|akr{ ge rozi{ dc ideorazw baiaho% Gc. de r`o deo `aeb. r`g{ uebozngeo{ r`o (|droergan'gi|dzraeko dc r`o ior`db{ abd|rob rd a{{o{{ r`o okdedigk sanuo dc oesgzdeioeran oprozeangrgo{ (osoe cdz |dngkw bokg{gde{r`ar azo jgeazw. g%o% r`o k`dgko jorxooe bgccozoer oeozhw rok`edndhgo{'. de r`o dr`oz. gr zag{o{ r`o kzukgan quo{rgde dc r`ouekozragerw ajdur r`o okdedigk o{rgiaro{% R`g{ azrgkno agi{ ar boide{rzargeh r`ar r`o uekozragerw ajdur oprozean kd{r{. osoe gc nazho. bdo{ edr uebozigeo r`o |d{{gjgngrw dc sozgcwgeh x`or`oz ha{)cgzob BH g{ |zocozajno (dz edr' rd koerzangvob {u||nw% R`o |a|oz kdi|azo{ koerzangvob aeb bokoerzangvob idbon{ ge rozi{ dc r`o oprozean oesgzdeioeran kd{r{ x`gk` azo kankunarob jwu{geh r`o zo{unr{ dc r`o asagnajno {rubgo{ ge r`g{ cgonb (ge |azrgkunaz r`o zo{unr{ dc r`o bg{{oigeargde |zdko{{ dc r`o {d)kannobOprozeO |zdfokr. deo dc r`o id{r zokoer aeb akkuzaro ior`dbdndhgo{. aeb r`o zo{unr{ dc a iora)aeanw{g{. xgr` zohazb rd r`oiazhgean kd{r dc H@H oig{{gde{'% R`o uekozragerw ajdur oprozean kd{r{ g{ {uj{raergan jur edr {d nazho r`ar gr g{ edr |d{{gjno rd{aw aewr`geh ajdur r`o oesgzdeioeran zamgeh dc anrozeargso rok`edndhw {dnurgde{ gesdnsgeh rzabo)dcc jorxooe r`o gi|akr{ dc 
<7:1)0<<7$" ) {oo czder iarroz 
B
:<<? On{osgoz J%S% Ann zgh`r{ zo{ozsob%bdg61<%1<13$f%okdnokde%:<<?%<2%<12& Ron%6 -;7 :?0;3;0:2= cap6 -;7 :?0;3;07<%
 O)iagn abbzo{{6
czaeko{kd%hunngLueg)jdkkdeg%gr%Okdndhgkan Okdedigk{ ?8 (:<<3' :0:‛;<?xxx%on{osgoz%kdi$ndkaro$okdnokde
 
bgccozoer |dnnuraer{ (dz jorxooe bgccozoer mgeb{ dc gi|akr{'% R`o ngrozaruzo de oprozean kd{r{ |zdsgbo{ {osozan {rubgo{akkduergeh cdz a nazho |azr dc uekozragerw jw ioae{ dc a||zd|zgaro {rarg{rgkan aeb {oe{grgso aeanw{g{% Jw u{geh aeb onajdzargehr`o{o zo{unr{. r`o aeanw{g{ bo{kzgjob ge r`g{ |a|oz {ooi{ rd {u||dzr r`o kdeknu{gde r`ar koerzangvob {u||nw. aeb o{|okgannw r`okdi|noronw onokrzgk {dnurgde (ja{ob de r`o zosoz{gjno onokrzgk `oar |ui|'. g{ {rgnn |zocozajno rd earuzan ha{)cgzob K@\bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde% R`g{ g{ edr a bocgegrgso kdeknu{gde jur. xo `d|o. a u{ocun ({kgoergcgk ja{ob' kderzgjurgde cdz |dngkwbokg{gde{ ueboz r`o {raro dc r`o azr%Ge cakr. r`g{ zo{unr `a{ ae gerozo{rgeh |dngkw gi|ngkargde% Gr {uhho{r{ ueno{{ quo{rgdegeh r`o kuzzoer oer`u{ga{i de earuzan ha{)cgzob K@\ bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde bo|ndwioer (o%h% r`o Ouzd|oae Kdiig{{gde g{ geboob absdkargeh BH a{ a kderzgjurgde rdH@H oig{{gde zobukrgde' aeb `on|{ u{ rd zocnokr u|de ha{)cgzob BH {u||dzrgeh oesgzdeioeran |dngkgo{ x`gk` cdku{ de r`ozobukrgde dc H@H oig{{gde{ aeb rdrannw bg{zohazb r`o |d{{gjno rzabo)dcc jorxooe r`o gi|akr{ dc hndjan aeb ndkan)zohgdean |dnnuraer{% _eno{{ deo boego{ r`o zargdeangrw arrzgjurob rd iamgeh rzabodcc{. de r`o ja{g{ dc or`gkan ngigr{ dc okdedigk sanuargde{%Osoe ge r`g{ ka{o. `dxosoz. kd{r)joeocgr aeanw{g{ {ooi{ rd jo nohgrgiaro aeb a eoko{{azw {ro| dc r`o |ujngk bg{kduz{o% Xo r`gem r`ar r`o zo{unr{ dc r`g{ |a|oz azo oijnoiargk. czdi r`g{ |dger dc sgox%
B
:<<? On{osgoz J%S% Ann zgh`r{ zo{ozsob%
 Mowxdzb{6
Bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde= Oprozean kd{r{= _ekozragerw= Kd{r)joeocgr aeanw{g{= Oesgzdeioeran |dngkw
1% Gerzdbukrgde
R`o |ozcdziaeko dc r`o {iann earuzan ha{)cgzob |dxoz rok`edndhgo{
1
(zokg|zdkargeh oehgeo aeb ha{ruzjgeo' `a{ gi|zdsob zoiazmajnw dsoz r`o na{r bo)kabo% R`g{ `a{ azdu{ob r`o gerozo{r dc d|ozardz{. zoh)unardz{ aeb nohg{nardz{ ge earuzan ha{)cgzob bg{rzgjurobhoeozargde (ha{)cgzob BH'. eaionw. r`o gerohzarob dz {raeb)andeo u{o dc {iann. idbunaz ha{)cgzob |dxohoeozargde knd{o rd r`o |dger dc kde{ui|rgde a{ aeanrozeargso rd nazho |dxoz hoeozargde aeb onokrzgkgrwrzae{|dzr dsoz ndeh bg{raeko{ (koerzangvob {u||nw'%Ha{)cgzob BH gesdnso{ (gerozean' kd{r{ `gh`oz (deasozaho' r`ae r`d{o dc koerzangvob {u||nw jur kae |zdsgbo gi|dzraer joeocgr{ czdi r`o oesgzdeioeran |dger dc sgox%
:
Ku{rdioz |zdpgigrw. ge cakr. `a{ rxdgi|dzraer absaeraho{% De r`o deo `aeb. gr hzoarnwgekzoa{o{ r`o |droergan cdz kdijgeob `oar aeb |dxoz hoeozargde
;
(K@\ dz kdhoeozargde' aeb. de r`o dr`oz.gr asdgb{ onokrzgkgrw rzae{ig{{gde nd{{o{% R`ozocdzo.kdi|azob rd koerzangvob {u||nw. earuzan ha{)cgzobK@\ bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde kae |zdsgbo oeozhw {asgehaeb. kde{oquoernw. kae gesdnso zobukob hzooe`du{oha{ (H@H' oig{{gde{% Eosozr`ono{{. r`o zoangvargde r`ar ha{)cgzob BHkdunb |zdsgbo oeozhw {asgeh aeb ndxoz H@H oig{){gde{ bdo{ edr ioae r`ar bokoerzangvargde g{ uebdujr)obnw |zocozajno rd nazho |dxoz hoeozargde czdi r`ooesgzdeioeran |dger dc sgox. cdz rxd zoa{de{%Cgz{r. bo{|gro r`o `gh`oz dsozann oeozhw occgkgoekw.ha{)cgzob BH rok`edndhgo{ igh`r gesdnso `gh`oz ede)H@H oig{{gde{ (kdi|azob rd r`o jo{r asagnajno koe)rzan |dxoz rok`edndhw'%[okdeb. r`ozo azo kde{gbozajno bgccozoeko{ jo)rxooe koerzangvob aeb bokoerzangvob rok`edndhgo{ gerozi{ dc r`o gi|akr dc ede)H@H oig{{gde{ ([D
p
. ED
p
. |azrgkunaro. ork%'% R`o{o bgccozoeko{ igh`r jobuo rd igkzd)ndkangvargde occokr{% _engmo nazho |dxoz  |naer{ (`gh` {rakm aeb oprza)uzjae ndkargde'. ha{)cgzobbg{rzgjurob rok`edndhgo{ `aso ndx {rakm{ aeb azohoeozannw ndkarob ge boe{onw |d|unarob uzjae azoa{%Jokau{o dc ndx {rakm{ (oig{{gde{ ar oprzoionw ndxanrgrubo{'. |dnnuraer arid{|`ozgk bgnurgde kdunb jondxoz {d r`ar r`o gekzoa{o{ ge |dnnuraer kdekoerzargdeknd{o rd r`o |naer kdunb jo `gh`oz r`ae r`d{o dc anazho |dxoz |naer% Buo rd ndkargde. r`o{o `gh`gekzoa{o{ ge |dnnuraer kdekoerzargde dkkuz ge `gh`nw |d|unarob azoa{ aeb {ozgdu{nw baiaho `uiae `oanr`%R`o{o kdijgeob occokr{ igh`r kau{o ae oesgzdeioe)
1
Akmoziaee or an% (:<<1'kde{gboz bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde aeonokrzgk |dxoz {duzko kdeeokrob bgzokrnw rd r`o bg{rzgjurgde eorxdzm dz de r`o ku{rdioz {gro dc r`o ioroz% R`ow {uhho{r r`o cdnndxgehkarohdzgo{6 igkzd BH (1 Xarr 
j
? mX'= {iann BH (? mX
j
? IX'=iobgui BH (? IX
j
?< IX'= nazho BH (?< IX
j
;<< IX'% Ger`g{ azrgkno. xo zocoz rd kdesoergdean {iann ha{)cgzob rok`edndhgo{%R`ozocdzo xo bd edr ramo gerd kde{gbozargde r`o cuon konn{%
:
A{ zohazb{ BH joeocgr{ aeb r`o zonargde{`g| jorxooe rok`ed)ndhgkan k`aeho aeb iazmor dzhaegvargde. {ooAzr`uz B% Ngrrno Gek% (1770'aeb\cogcoejozhoz or an% (1778'%
;
R`o `gh` kd{r{ dc rzae{|dzrgeh `oar osoe dsoz {`dzr bg{raeko{iamo nazho){kano kdhoeozargde uearrzakrgso%
 C% Hunnıl $ Okdndhgkan Okdedigk{ ?8 (:<<3' :0:‛;<?
:0;
 
ran gi|akr (|oz uegr dc |dnnuraer oigrrob' iuk` `gh`oz r`ae r`ar dc a nazho |dxoz |naer%Ge dr`oz xdzb{. kdi|azob rd koerzangvob {u||nw.ha{)cgzob BH oeozhw {asgeh edr eoko{{azgnw gi|ngo{ndxoz ede)H@H oig{{gde{. aeb ndxoz ede)H@Hoig{{gde{ edr eoko{{azgnw gi|nw ndxoz ndkan‛zohgdeanoesgzdeioeran gi|akr%Ge kde{oquoeko. gr g{ gi|d{{gjno rd iamo a zongajnoosanuargde dc ha{)cgzob BH oesgzdeioeran joeocgr{xgr`dur kdi|azgeh koerzangvob aeb bokoerzangvob idb)on{ ge rozi{ dc oprozean kd{r{. r`ar g{ xgr`dur aeaeanw{g{ x`gk` anndx{ u{ rd ioa{uzo r`o oproer dc hndjan aeb ndkan‛zohgdean occokr{ ge rozi{ dc ideorazwbaiaho% Gc. de r`o deo `aeb. r`g{ uebozngeo{ r`ogi|dzraeko dc r`o ior`db{ abd|rob rd a{{o{{ r`ookdedigk sanuo dc oesgzdeioeran oprozeangrgo{. der`o dr`oz. gr zag{o{ r`o kzukgan quo{rgde dc r`o uekoz)ragerw ajdur r`o okdedigk o{rgiaro{ dc {dio gi|dz)raer gi|akr karohdzgo{%R`o uekozragerw ajdur oprozean kd{r o{rgiaro{ g{ deodc r`o iage zoa{de{ iaew aur`dz{ bd edr zokdiioebu{geh kd{r)joeocgr aeanw{g{ rd {u||dzr oesgzdeioeran |dngkgo{%
2
R`o{o aur`dz{ azhuo r`ar r`o `gh` uekozrage)rw ajdur oprozean kd{r{. o{|okgannw r`o okdedigk sanuodc hndjan xazigeh. eohargsonw accokr{ r`o {ghegcgkaekodc kdi|azgeh bgccozoer rok`edndhgkan aeb dzhaegva)rgdean {dnurgde{% R`o dsozann oprozean kd{r{ dc a |az)rgkunaz rok`edndhw dz mgeb dc oeozhw {u||nw igh`r joge cakr `gh`oz dz ndxoz r`ae aedr`oz deo bo|oebgeh.cdz opai|no. de r`o sanuo a{{gheob rd r`o iazhgeankd{r dc r`o H@H oig{{gde{% R`g{ sanuo kae sazwoedzidu{nw bo|oebgeh de {rarg{rgkan uekozragerw (o%h%uekozragerw ajdur |`w{gkan‛k`oigkan |`oedioea.sanuo{ dc {dio okdedigk |azaioroz{. ork%' aeb |dngr)gkan‛or`gkan uekozragerw x`gk` accokr{ r`o k`dgko dc r`obg{kduer zaro. x`d{o sanuo g{ kzukgannw gi|dzraer x`oexo boan xgr` caz)bg{raer curuzo ({uk` a{ ge r`o ka{o dc hndjan xazigeh occokr'% Eosozr`ono{{. x`oe |dngkw bokg{gde{ azo jgeazw(o%h% r`o k`dgko jorxooe rxd bgccozoer |dxoz rok`)edndhgo{'. uekozragerw g{ edr hoeozannw kde{gbozobsozw gi|dzraer (Zajn aeb [|abazd. 1777= Mzoxgrr.:<<:'% Ge id{r kdi|azg{de{ jorxooe |dxoz |naer{r`o {gruargde g{. ge cakr. qugro {gi|no jokau{o r`ozo g{a |d{grgso kdzzonargde jorxooe H@H aeb ede)H@Hoig{{gde{ (aeb jorxooe r`o bgccozoer ede)H@H oig{){gde{'% Cdz ge{raeko. kdan aeb dgn |naer{ oigr iuk`idzo KD
:
r`ae ha{)cgzob |naer{. jur r`ow an{d oigr iuk` idzo [D
p
. ED
p
aeb |azrgkunaro% Ge kde{oquoeko.x`arosoz r`o uekozragerw ajdur oprozean kd{r{ ha{)cgzob |naer{ |ozcdzi{ jorroz r`ae dr`oz cd{{gn cuon |naer{.czdi oesgzdeioeran (aeb |oz`a|{ {dkgan' |dger dc sgox% Zar`oz. xo kdunb azhuo r`ar r`o oesgzdeioeranzaemgeh dc r`o{o rok`edndhgo{ kdunb jo oa{gnw bobukobxgr`dur o{rgiargeh oprozean kd{r{%
?
Ge{roab. cdz r`o zoa{de{ gnnu{rzarob ajdso. r`g{ {gi) |no zoa{degeh kae edr jo kozragenw a||ngob rd r`okdi|azg{de jorxooe koerzan |dxoz {u||nw aeb ha{)cgzob bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde (aeb. ge hoeozan. cd{{gn cuoncgzob BH'. osoe gc xo kde{gboz r`o {dno oesgzdeioeran |ozcdziaeko%
3
R`o aeanw{g{ dc r`o ha{)cgzob bg{rzgjurobhoeozargde. r`ozocdzo. nddm{ sozw gerozo{rgeh czdi jdr` ior`dbdndhgkan aeb |dngkw |dger{ dc sgox%De r`o ior`dbdndhgkan {gbo. gr uebozngeo{ r`o (|d)roergan' gi|dzraeko (aeb u{ocuneo{{' dc r`o kd{r)joe)ocgr aeanw{g{ osoe cdz |dngkw bokg{gde{ r`ar azo jgeazw% De r`o |dngkw {gbo. gr igh`r |zdsgbo u{ocungebgkargde{ cdz nohgrgiargeh dz quo{rgdegeh r`o kuz)zoer oer`u{ga{i de ha{)cgzob BH bosond|ioer%Kdekozegeh |dngkw gi|ngkargde{. `dxosoz. gr g{ an{deoko{{azw rd `gh`ngh`r r`ar a |azr dc r`o okdedigkngrozaruzo quo{rgde{ r`o sangbgrw dc r`o kd{r)joeocgr aeanw{g{. de r`o ja{g{ dc r`o or`gkan ngigr{ dc ior`db{rd a{{o{{ oprozean kd{r{% R`o r`odzorgkan {u||dzr cdz oprozeangrw sanuargde opozkg{o{ g{ bzaxe czdi r`o eod)kna{{gkan xoncazo okdedigk{ ngrozaruzo% Xgr`ge r`g{{rzaeb dc zo{oazk`. r`ozo azo a euijoz dc sanuargdeior`db{ ge u{o. jur unrgiaronw r`ow ann agi ar bg{kds)ozgeh |od|no‗{ |zocozoeko{ op|zo{{ob a{ xgnngeheo{{ rd
2
Aideh r`o{o aur`dz{ xo iu{r ioergde[rgzngeh (1778'x`d |zd|d{o{ {dio gerozo{rgeh azhuioer{ cdz {u||dzrgeh `g{ kzgrgk{%
?
R`o kdi|azg{de jorxooe cd{{gn cuon |naer{ aeb zoeoxajnorok`edndhgo{ (xgeb. {dnaz. igeg)`wbzd' noab{ rd {gignaz kdeknu{gde{%@dxosoz. r`o |zdjnoi dc uekozragerw igh`r azg{o x`oe xo kdi) |azo r`o bgccozoer rok`edndhgo{ ge rozi{ dc dsozann {dkgan kd{r{(gerozean |nu{ oprozean kd{r{'. cdz opai|no. r`o gerozean (iazmor'kd{r{ dc r`o zoeoxajno |naer{ azo hoeozannw `gh`oz r`ae r`d{o dc r`ocd{{gn cuon |naer{% Ge kde{oquoeko. r`o dsozann |ozcdziaeko dc r`o{orok`edndhgo{ igh`r bo|oeb de r`o sanuo a{{gheob rd r`o oprozeankd{r{%
3
R`o czaioxdzm jokdio{ osoe idzo kdi|nop x`oe xo ramo gerdakkduer gerozean (iazmor' kd{r{% R`o gerozean kd{r dc nazho |dxoz {u||nw g{ ndxoz (de asozaho' r`ae r`ar dc bg{rzgjurob hoeozargde(Hunnıl. :<<;'% Ge kde{oquoeko. r`o
j
{dkgan kdi|orgrgsoeo{{
 Q 
dc BHbo|oeb{ de r`o oesgzdeioeran |ozcdziaeko% R`g{ oi|`a{gvo{ r`ogi|dzraeko dc r`o uekozragerw ajdur oprozean kd{r{%
 C% Hunnıl $ Okdndhgkan Okdedigk{ ?8 (:<<3' :0:‛;<?
:02

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->