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Combustion Process

Combustion Process

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Published by Nael
Combustion Process
Combustion Process

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Published by: Nael on Oct 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/05/2013

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Combust1a.ppp1
COMBUSTION
In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot sourcetogether with a cold sinkOccasionally these occur together in nature eg:-geothermal sites or solar powered engines, but usually theheat source has to be 'artificially' provided.The most common way of doing this is by the combustion ofa fuel. (Nuclear fission/fusion & solar are alternatives )EnginesWhere the heat from combustion is transferred from theproducts (or process ) of combustion to a separate workingfluid , the engine is referred to as an EXTERNAL combustionengine eg:-Steam engines / turbinesStirling enginesThese constitute true 'heat engines' as we have studied todate.Where the combustion occurs within the working fluid ( usuallyair ) the engine is referred to as an INTERNAL combustionengine ie:Petrol & Diesel enginesGas turbinesThese are not true heat engines although we often analysethem as though they were.
 
Combust1a.ppp2
THE COMBUSTION PROCESSFUEL:-Solid:- Coal, wood - consists mainly of C, H, & O + impuritiesLiquid:- Large hydrocarbon molecules of varying boiling pointsmainly C & H : Petrol, Diesel, Fuel oil etc;Gas:- Small hydrocarbon molecules - methane, ethane,propane, butane, etc; plus a range of manufactured gases ;eg H
2
, Acetylene etc..OXIDANT:-Usually air ( the oxygen in the air )Where air is unavailable the oxidant has to be carried as wellas the fuel - space vehicles, rockets etc;PRODUCTS ( OF COMBUSTION) HEATFUEL OXIDANTMIXINGIGNITIONCOMBUSTION HEAT
 
Combust1a.ppp3
MIXINGSOLIDS :- pulverising to powder or small lumpsLIQUIDS :- spray nozzles, atomisers, vaporisers,carburettors, 'burners'.GASES :- mixing valves, chambers, burners;usually need precautions to avoid explosion and flash back .IGNITIONSimply mixing methane and air will not cause it to burn.The molecules need to reach a certain threshold energy levelbefore the combustion process will proceed.This may be provided initially by another flame, a spark orhot surface. The combustion process itself ( if sustained )then continues the ignition process.The chemical dissociation of the fuel and it's recombinationwith oxygen. Energy and Mass are conserved.COMBUSTIONPRODUCTSC CO
2
complete
combustion
partial
combustionH
2
H
2
OOther products may also be formed :-N
2
NOx etc; often harmful pollutants ( SO
2
, SO
3
)CCO(soot)(carbon monoxide)

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