The key considerations in the hydraulic design of water storage tanks are described in thefollowing sections and procedures for design of the tanks are described in the remainder of the paper.
One primary purpose for construction of storage facilities is
. Water utilitieslike to operate treatment plants at a relatively constant rate, and wells and pumping stationsgenerally work best when pumped at a steady rate. However, water use in most utilitiesvaries significantly over the course of the day, These variations in use can be met bycontinuously varying source production, continuously varying pumping rates, or filling anddraining storage tanks. The process of filling and draining storage tanks is much easieroperationally and is generally less expensive than other methods. Facilities serving portionsof a distribution system with storage tanks generally need to be sized only to meet maximumdaily demands, with storage tanks providing water during instantaneous peak demands.
To a great extent, the elevation of water stored in a tank determines the pressure in all pipesdirectly connected to the tank (i.e., not served through a pressure-reducing valve or pump).Ignoring headloss, which is usually small most of the time, the pressure can be estimated as
=pressure at elevation
=water level in tank,
=elevation indistribution system,
=specific weight of water,
). (When pressure isexpressed in psi,
is 0.433.) The larger the tank volume, the more stable the pressures in thedistribution system will be despite fluctuations in demand or changes in pump operation.
If distribution storage tanks were not used, larger water transmission mains and largertreatment plant capacity would be required by most utilities to provide water needed for firefighting. Especially for smaller systems, storage tanks are a much more economical andoperationally reliable means for meeting the short-term large demands placed on a water-supply system during fire fighting.
In addition to fires, emergencies such as power outages, breaks in large water mains, problemsat treatment plants, and unexpected shutdowns of water-supply facilities can cause failure of the water system if sufficient water is not available in storage. Storage tanks can meet demandsduring emergency situations. The extent to which emergency storage is needed in excess of fire storage depends on the reliability of the supply system. In addition to simply providingstorage volume, tanks can provide a form of backup pressurization of the system in case of