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Supercapacitor Model

Supercapacitor Model

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SIITME2009 – 15
th
International Symposium for Design and Technology of Electronics Packages978-1-4244-50330309/$26.00 ©2009 IEEE 17-20 Sep 2009, Gyula, Hungary195
Modeling and Simulation of Supercapacitors
C. F
ă
rca
ş
, D. Petreu
ş
, I. Ciocan and N. Palaghi
ţă
 
Department of Applied Electronics,Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology,Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaEmail:Cristian.Farcas@ael.utcluj.ro 
 Abstract
:
 
 In this paper we present some models for supercapacitors. The supercapacitors are used more and more in high level industries such as: traction systems, automotive industry, aerospaceindustry, telecommunications etc.
 
Undestanding supercapacitors operation mode is necessary so wecan be able to determine the applications which require these components, and to be able to choosebetween supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.
 
 In this paper were used some models for the implementation of supercapacitors, and the simulations made in Orcad 9.2 to determine their operation, are in time and frequency domain. Also, the models were implemented in Simulink 7.5 and the simulation results prove the models accuracy. Two test measurements on the ECOND Pscap350supercapacitor were realized and using the measurement data, two methods to compute the parameters are presented.
1.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
Electrical energy can be stored in two differentways:
 
indirectly
– in batteries as potentiallyavailable chemical energy requiring faradicoxidation and reduction of the electro-activeagents to release charges that can performelectrical work when they flow between twoelectrodes having different electrodepotentials, and
 
directly
– in an electrostatic way as negativeand positive electric charges on the plates of acapacitor by a process termed as non-faradicelectrical energy storage.Batteries have several downsides that eliminatetheir use as the primary power storage source. Theyrecharge slowly, have a limited number of rechargecycles, require large volumes of space and weight,have a cold intolerance, and while batteries have ahigh energy density they also have a very low powerdensity which means they are good for constant lowpower devices, but cannot produce short bursts of high peak power due to their internal equivalent seriesresistance (ESR).The ultracapacitors, also known assupercapacitors, solves many of the limitations thatarise with batteries. The biggest downside toultracapacitors is that though they have a larger powerdensity than batteries, they also have a smaller energydensity than batteries. This means that for a capacitorand battery of equal volume, the battery canpotentially store more energy than the capacitor, butthe capacitor can output stored energy as power at afaster rate compared to the battery [1].The supercapacitor resembles a regular capacitorwith the exception that it offers very high capacitancein a small package. Energy storage is by means of static charge rather than of an electro-chemicalprocess that is inherent to the battery. Applying avoltage differential on the positive and negative platescharges the supercapacitor [2].The supercapacitor can be recharged anddischarged virtually an unlimited number of times.Unlike the electrochemical battery, there is very littlewear and tear induced by cycling and age does notaffect the supercapacitor much. In normal use, a
 
SIITME2009 – 15
th
International Symposium for Design and Technology of Electronics Packages978-1-4244-50330309/$26.00 ©2009 IEEE 17-20 Sep 2009, Gyula, Hungary196
supercapacitor deteriorates to about 80 percent after10 years.The self-discharge of the supercapacitor issubstantially higher than that of the electro-chemicalbattery. Supercapacitors with an organic electrolyteare affected the most. In 30 to 40 days, the capacitydecreases from full charge to 50 percent. Incomparison, a nickel-based battery discharges about10 percent during that time [3].
2.
 
S
UPERCAPACITORS VERSUS
B
ATTERY
 
A storage battery has two different types of activematerials entrapped in a suitably conductive matrix asanodes and cathodes to sustain the net cell reactions,while a capacitor comprises a dielectric sandwichedbetween two identical electrodes (figure 1).
+Q -QChargeElectric field EDielectric
Fig. 1
. Conventional capacitor.
Batteries are particularly good at storing electricalenergy for later usage. It’s getting the electricalenergy out of a battery fast enough that cansometimes create difficulties. During the storage of electrochemical energy in a battery, chemical inter-conversions of the electrode materials occur usuallywith concomitant phase changes. Although the overallenergy changes can be conducted in a relativelyreversible thermodynamic route, the charge anddischarge processes in a storage battery often involveirreversibility in inter-conversions of the chemicalelectrode-reagents. Accordingly, the cycle-life of storage batteries is usually limited, and varies with thebattery type.Capacitors are at the opposite end of the scale.They store power as static electricity rather than inthe reversible, faradic chemical reaction found in abattery. And they can deliver all their stored energyvirtually instantaneously – within a few thousandthsof a second. In energy storage by a capacitor, only anexcess and a deficiency of electron charges on thecapacitor plates have to be established on charge andthe reverse on discharge and no chemical changes areinvolved. Accordingly, a capacitor has an almostunlimited recyclability, typically between 10
5
and 10
6
 times. As a result, capacitors have a substantially lowenergy-density.When comparing supercapacitors with batteriesthe main difference is in energy and power density. Asupercapacitor has a higher power density than abattery, but it has a significantly lower energy densitythan a battery, as in figure 2 [4].
1 10 10 10 10
4
 10
-
 10
-1
 11010
2
 10
   S   p   e   c    i    f    i   c   e   n   e   r   g  y   [   W    h   /    k   g   ]
Lead Acid, NiCd, LiIonBatteriesSupercapacitorsCapacitorsSpecific power [W/kg]
Fig. 2
. Ragone plot of various energy storage devices.
The specific energy is given by:energySpecific
m I 
=
(1)where U[V] is voltage,I[A] electric current,t[s] time andm[kg] mass.The specific power is:
m I ower Specific p
=
(2)The main differences between the performances of supercapacitors and accumulators can be easilynoticed as in table 1 [5]:
 
SIITME2009 – 15
th
International Symposium for Design and Technology of Electronics Packages978-1-4244-50330309/$26.00 ©2009 IEEE 17-20 Sep 2009, Gyula, Hungary197
 
Accumulators SupercapacitorsEnergystoragemethodFaradic reactionsMass transferbetween theelectrodesMostly electrostaticinteractionsIonic chargeaccumulation at theactivematerial/electrolyteinterfaceDischargecurveCycle lifeDepending oncycling profileImpact of the activematerial degradationand parasiticphenomena such aselectrolytedegradation>>1 000 000Impact of parasiticphenomena such aselectrolytedegradationEnergylevel60 Wh/kg (alkaline)140 Wh/kg (Li-ion)1-10 Wh/kgPowerlevel0.4-0.8 kW/kg(alkaline)0.3-1.5 kW/kg (Li-ion)1-6 kW/kg
Tab. 1.
Acumulators versus supercapacitors.
3.
 
M
ODELING OF
S
UPERCAPACITORS
 
E
XTRACTION OF
P
ARAMETERS
Starting from experimental results, we extract theparameters. For experimental measurements one usedthe supercapacitor Econd PScap350. Table 2 presentsthe specified parameters for this supercapacitor:
Parameter Value
Nominal Voltage 14 [V]Nominal Capacitance 350 [F]Mass 24 [kg]
Tab. 2.
Specific parameters for Econd PScap350.
The measurement consist of charging thesupercapacitor at a current of 10A, until the voltageon the supercapacitor reaches the value 11V, as it wasset, then the current is cut off for about 10 minutes.After that, a negative current of -20A was applied, inorder to discharge the supercapacitor. For dischargingthe supercapacitor one used an electronic load fromChroma. The experimental data was recorded with aprecision digital multimeter Fluke 8845A. Thevoltage on the supercapacitor is recorded everysecond, and by plotting this voltage versus time isobtained the graph presented in Figure 3.
Volatge on ECOND PSCAP350
02468101202004006008001000
Time[s]
       V     o       l      t     a     g     e       [       V       ]
 
Fig. 3
. Voltage from screening test using Econd PScap350.
We used a model for our supercapacitor startingfrom a model proposed in [5], [6]. The Spice model ispresented in figure 4 and the Simulink model ispresented in figure 5.
Rp10m
0
+-+
-
S1SVON = 11.05VVOFF = 11.07VR310C300R14mR2200I1C123
 
Fig. 4
. The Spice model of the supercapacitor.
Using the experimental results presented in figure3, we can calculate the parameters of the modelpresented in figure 4.The capacitance value (C) can then be calculatedusing:

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