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DeJong_Geodynamic Evolution western Mediterranean & Betics (Spain)_Proceedings-Kon.Ned.Akad.Wetensch 1993

DeJong_Geodynamic Evolution western Mediterranean & Betics (Spain)_Proceedings-Kon.Ned.Akad.Wetensch 1993

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Published by Koen de Jong
Plate reconstructions of the west Mediterranean for the Cretaceous are provided. The tectonie evolution of the Betic Cordilleras is charcaterised by subduction in the Cretaceous, leading to high-pressure low-temperature metamorphism, and by extensional tectonics and inversion in the late Oligocene to early Miocene, associated with slab roll-back and steepening followed by detachment. This model is based on an integrated (micro) structural, petrological aud geochronological study of the eastern Betic Zone.
Plate reconstructions of the west Mediterranean for the Cretaceous are provided. The tectonie evolution of the Betic Cordilleras is charcaterised by subduction in the Cretaceous, leading to high-pressure low-temperature metamorphism, and by extensional tectonics and inversion in the late Oligocene to early Miocene, associated with slab roll-back and steepening followed by detachment. This model is based on an integrated (micro) structural, petrological aud geochronological study of the eastern Betic Zone.

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Published by: Koen de Jong on Nov 01, 2012
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Proc.Kon.Ned.Akad.
v.
Wetensch.
96(3),295-
333
September
27,1993
The
tectono
-
metamorphic
and chronologic
development
of
the
BeticZone {SESpain)
with
implications
for
the
geodynamic
evolution
of
the
western Mediterranean
area
Koende
Jong
Jnstituut voorAardwetenschappen,Vrije Universiteit, DeBoelelaan
1085, 1081
HV
Amsterdam,the Netherlands
Communicated by Prof.
W.P.
deRoever
at
the meeting
of
November 30,1992
ABSTRACT
An integrated(micro)structural,petrologicaland geochronological study
of
theM ulhacen and AlpujarrideComplexesintheeasternBeticZone has resultedin well constrainedPressure-Te
mperatur
etime paths. These P-T-t paths display the essentialfeatures
of
thegeodynamic evolution
of
the BeticZone.EarlyAlpineHigh-Pressure metamorphism
is
duetosubduction
of
the MulhacenandAlpujarride Complexes.It
is
arg
uedthatsubductiontookplace belowthelower
crust
of
the Malagu
id
e
Domain
during the
Ear
ly Cretaceous.Subductiontothe Westimpliesth
at
the Malaguide
Domain
waslocatedcloser tothe ExternalZone than the metamorphicnappecomplexes
of
theBeticZone.Subduction resulted fromESE-wardmotiono
flberia
from
119
to
80
Ma, w
hich
r
es
ulted in break-up
of
theJurassictranstensionalAfrica-Eurasia plateboundary. Exhumation and cooling
of
the
HP
metamorphic rocksoccurredbysequentialunderthrusting
of
deepernappecomplexesand byconcomitant extension
of
thehangingwall
of
thesubductionsystem,wheretheMalaguide
Co
mplex waslocated. Ductile de
fo
rmation
of
the metamorphic rocks resultedintheirelongationandextreme thinning. Advancedcooling
of
the thinned metamorphic nappepileoccurred
during
northwardthrusting
of
theBeticZone overthesouthernmostExternal ZoneinEarly to Middle Eocene times, thus coeval withtheclimax
of
crusta! shorteningin the Pyrenees
at
the
northern
margin
of
Iberia. Overthrustingresulted inHP/LTmetamorphism in theoverthrust
part
of
theExternalZone
(A
lm
agride
Comp
l
ex)
and flexuralbulginginits northern
part
where sedimentationcontinued.
During
the LateOligoceneand younger tectonicevolutionextensionandcrusta!shorteningfol lowedeach
other
rapidly
dur
in
g continuing Africa-Eurasiaconvergence, pointingtoroll-back, stee peningand detachment
of
a subduction slab.Phases
of
reheatingandresetting
of
isotopesystemscorrelate with extension andupwarping
of
hot mantle materialand associatedmagmatism,whereas phases
of
cooling are dueto thrusting
of
(re)heatedrocksoverless extended,cooler lithosphere.Early Miocene inversion
of
the extended areaandconcentration
of
overthrustingin the most thinnedarea result
ed
from slab detachment enablingtransmission
of
compression in the shallow remainder
of
the
295
 
slab.Slab steepening and detachmentcan further explain concentration
of
Miocene and younger
ma
gmatism intoanarrowzone,its deepsource anddeepearthquakes,whichcannot beduetosteady state subduction as Africa-Eurasia convergence falls sh
ort
during this period.
The
structural response
of
the Mulhacen andAlpujarrideComplexesduringthe youngerAlpineevolution wasdifferent due to theirlocation inthe footwa
ll
andhangingwall
of
the
ex
tensional system,respectively.
INTRODUCTION
From
the early days
of
geological investigationsintheBeticCordillerasitwas firmly established
that
the regional structure
of
the
Betic
Zone
is
the result
of
large scale subhorizontal
nappe
movements,which were explainedby thrusting
of
Africaover sediments
of
theTethys
and
over
Europe
(Brouwer, 1926).However,
th
eorigin
of
the chain was almostimmediatelyexplained alternatively as a result
of
nappe shedding from a central high
under
the influence
of
gravity (VanBemmelen,1933).
At
present there
is
still
no
unique geodynamic model for this
ora-
genic belt,which formsthewestern end
of
the
European
Alpine orogen (fig.
1)
,
and the importance
of
extension
and
shortening
during
the tectonic evolution
of
the belt are hotly debated
(cf.
Doblas
&
Oyarzun,1990
and
Frizonde
Lamotte
et
I
BERIAN MESETA
~
E3J
CJ
Jr/'
m:m:m:m:m:1
TELL
Alp1ne deformed Mesozoicand Tertiary rocks (
wit
h
m1nor
reworked Paleozo1c rocks)
Flysch
Uni
ts
Internal
Zo
ne
s
of
the BeticCordill
eras
an
d Rif(
Alpine
metamorphic rocks)
Kabyllan
Ma
ssifs
0000
GULF
DE
LION
Fi
g.
I.
Tectonic sketch
map
of the
we
stern most Mediterranean area includingtheBeticCordilleras. Theregionalgeology
of
the eastern Betic Cordillerasisdepicted in Fig. 2,corresponding to the out linedarea.
296
 
al., 1990; Zeck et al., 1992a and
De
Jong 1992). Widely different models havebeen proposed, which generally highlight only one aspect
of
the tectonicevolu tion. Thisseemsprincipally due
to
the fact
that
most models have nosoundbasis
of
structural
and
Pressure-Temperature-time data. Generally, the
metamorphic
part
of
the orogen, the Internal
or
Betic Zone,
is
considered as anallochtonoustectonicelement
or
micro plate (Alboran Micro Plate,
Alboran
Domain or
Al
boran
Block, e.g. Andrieuxetal.,
1971;
Bouillin et al., 1986;
Dercourt
et al., 1986;
Comas
et al.,1990;Sanz de Galdeano, 1990; Vegas, 1992; Geel etal.,1992), which was
juxtaposed
to theExternalZone, the former Mesozoic
and
EarlyTertiaryriftedmargin
of
SE
Iberia
(Hermes,1978; Peper
&
Cloetingh,1992;
De
Ruig,1992),along
ENE-WSW
trendingwrench faults during
the
Tertiary (Hermes,1978;
De
Smet,1984; Bouillin
et
al., 1986). Deformation in the Betic Zone hasbeen discussed within this concept(Frizonde
Lamotte et
al.,1989; Vauchez
&
Nicolas,
1991)
.However, the validity
of
this model
is
questioned by
the
occurrence
of HP
/LT
metamorphic
rocks
of
the Almagride Complexasthe structurally deepest unit in the
northeastern
Betic Zone.
The
Almagride Complex consists
of
(very-)low-grade Triassic rocks with a stratigraphy which stronglyresembles
that
of
the Subbetic in
parts
of
the
eastern
External
Zone
in
the
province
ofMurcia
(Simon,1987). This
author
proposed
that
this complex representsthesoutherncontinuation
of
the Subbetic below the nappe complexes
of
the BeticZone,implyingoverthrusting
of
the External Zone by
the
Betic Zone (Simon,
1987
;
De
Jong,1990,
1991).
The
outcrop
of
the Almagride Complex in windows
50
kmsouth
of
the present-day
boundary
between the External
and
Internal Zones(fig.
2)
demonstrates
that
the tectonic evolution
of
the Betic Cordilleras
cannot
beexplainedmerely by juxtaposition
of
two different tectonic domains by wrenching.Moreover, investigations in the
boundary
zone between the External
and
In
ternal
Zones
point
to presence
of
only minor strike-slip movements during theMiddle Miocene, taking place after overthrusting
(De
Ruig et al.,1987;
Martin
Algarra
et al.,1988; Van
der
Straaten, 1990; Lonergan, 1991;
De
Ruig, 1992).In thestack
of
nappe complexes in
the
Betic Zone the Malaguide Complex
is
underlajn by three
metamorphic
nappe complexes (Egeler
&
Si
m on, 1969;
Puga
&
Diaz
deFederico,
1978
;
De
Jong, 1990,
1991,
fig.
2), from
top
to bottom:
3)
theA1pujarrideComplex,
2)
the
Mulhacen
Complex,
1)
theVeleta Complex.
In contrast to
these nappe complexes, the Malaguide Complex has largely es
capedmetamorphism
during the Alpine tectonic evolution.
The
Mesozoic to theEarly Miocene stratigraphic column
of
the
Malaguide Complex (Make!, 1985)
is
arecord
of
itssedimentaryhistoryandthe surface expression
of
deformation
of
the
metamorphic
rocks
at
depth (De Jong, 1990,
1991)
.
The
model presented here
is
basedon adetailed integrated (micro)structural, petrological and geochronological study
of
theeasternBetic
Zone (De
Jong,
1991)
in
order
to get insight intothechangingP-Tconditions inthe course
of
the tectonic evolution, which elucidatethe principal crusta! scaletectonism in the belt.
In
the first
part
of
this articletherelationship
of
mineral growthwithrespecttodeformation phases will be 297

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