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Fundamentals of Linear Algebra

# Fundamentals of Linear Algebra

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Published by: Alayou Yirga on Nov 02, 2012

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Fundamentals of Linear Algebra
Marcel B. FinanArkansas Tech Universityc

2
PREFACE
Linear algebra has evolved as a branch of mathematics with wide range of applications to the natural sciences, to engineering, to computer sciences, tomanagement and social sciences, and more.This book is addressed primarely to second and third your college studentswho have already had a course in calculus and analytic geometry. It is theresult of lecture notes given by the author at The University of North Texasand the University of Texas at Austin. It has been designed for use either as asupplement of standard textbooks or as a textbook for a formal course in linearalgebra.This book is not a ”traditional” book in the sense that it does not includeany applications to the material discussed. Its aim is solely to learn the basictheory of linear algebra within a semester period. Instructors may wish to in-corporate material from various ﬁelds of applications into a course.I have included as many problems as possible of varying degrees of diﬃculty.Most of the exercises are computational, others are routine and seek to ﬁxsome ideas in the reader’s mind; yet others are of theoretical nature and havethe intention to enhance the reader’s mathematical reasoning. After all doingmathematics is the way to learn mathematics.A solution manual to the text is available by request from the author. Email:mﬁnan@atu.eduMarcecl B. FinanAustin, TexasMarch, 2001.

Contents
1 Linear Systems 5
1.1 Systems of Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2 Geometric Meaning of Linear Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Matrix Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.4 Elementary Row Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.5 Solving Linear Systems Using Augmented Matrices . . . . . . . . 171.6 Echelon Form and Reduced Echelon Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.7 Echelon Forms and Solutions to Linear Systems . . . . . . . . . . 281.8 Homogeneous Systems of Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 321.9 Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2 Matrices 43
2.1 Matrices and Matrix Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.2 Properties of Matrix Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502.3 The Inverse of a Square Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552.4 Elementary Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592.5 An Algorithm for Finding
A
1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632.6 Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3 Determinants 75
3.1 Denition of the Determinant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753.2 Evaluating Determinants by Row Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 793.3 Properties of the Determinant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833.4 Finding
A
1
Using Cofactor Expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863.5 Cramers Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933.6 Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4 The Theory of Vector Spaces 101
4.1 Vectors in Two and Three Dimensional Spaces . . . . . . . . . . 1014.2 Vector Spaces, Subspaces, and Inner Product Spaces . . . . . . . 1084.3 Linear Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144.4 Basis and Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204.5 Transition Matrices and Change of Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284.6 The Rank of a matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333

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