Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming3.
Describing electrical conductivitya.
Availability of mobile charge carriersi.
Valence electrons delocalized into the sea of delocalized electronsii.
At high temperatures, the electrons are excited to a higher energystate and are delocalizediii.
Valence electrons are localized in a covalent bond, hence no mobilecharge carriers4.
Describing Ionization energya.
It is the minimum energy required to completely remove 1 mole of electrons from 1mole of ground state gaseous atoms (or ions)b.
Change in subshelliii.
Describing how Period 3 non-metals react with watera.
They have vacant energetically-accessible 3d orbitals that can form a dative bondwith water molecules, by accepting an electron pair, thereby allowing hydrolysis tooccur
Definitions usually include “enthalpy change” with a few exceptionsi.
Lattice energy is the heat energy evolvedii.
Ionisation energy is the minimum energy requirediii.
Bond energy is the average energy needed to break2.
When doing lattice energy explanationa.
Compare the charge and radius of the ions involvedc.
When explaining, say the magnitude of lattice energy, not ‘more or less’, as it isalways negative3.
Always have state symbols when writing chemical energetics equations, as a change in statewill have a marked difference4.
Don’t forget the positive and negative signs in your answers!5.
The reason for second ionisation energy being greater than the first isa.
Nuclear charge of atom remains constantb.
Remaining electrons more strongly attractedc.
Overcome attractive forces between positively charged ion and negatively-chargedelectrons6.
When drawing an energy diagrama.
Don’t forget state symbols