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Chemistry Skills

Chemistry Skills

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My tips for A level H2 Chemistry questions. Hopefully this helps! Quite incomplete, but covers some important tips
My tips for A level H2 Chemistry questions. Hopefully this helps! Quite incomplete, but covers some important tips

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Nov 02, 2012
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05/17/2014

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Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming
Chemistry answering skills
Disclaimer: These notes are based on my opinion on how the questions should be tackled. Do take itwith a pinch of salt, and practice to see how they are applied.
 
Stoichiometry
1.
 
Calculating empirical formula and then molecular formulaa.
 
Find the mass ratio/ percentage of each elementi.
 
The question should have stated the percentage by mass of ___ in thecompound, find the others by subtracting from 100%b.
 
Find the mole ratio of each elementi.
 
Take the mass ratio/ percentage of an element and divide it by its Mrii.
 
Simplify to integers to get the mole ratioiii.
 
For example, mass ratio of H:O is 6:94
Mole ratio of H:O =
61
:
9416
 
1:1c.
 
This mole ratio is the empirical formulai.
 
For example, mole ratio of H:O is 1:1
Empirical formula = HOd.
 
Divide the Mr of the molecular formula with the Mr of the empirical formula to findthe number of atoms of each element in the molecular formulai.
 
For example, if Mr of molecular formula is 34, and that of the empiricalformula is 17, the molecular formula is H
2
O
2
 e.
 
Chemical bonding
 1.
 
Strength of covalent bonda.
 
Size of atomsi.
 
Larger atom = larger bond lengthb.
 
Extent of orbital overlapi.
 
Larger bond length = smaller orbital overlapc.
 
Thus bond strength2.
 
Drawing optical isomersa.
 
Label chiral carbonb.
 
Show bond anglec.
 
Show direction of bondi.
 
Into planeii.
 
Out of planeiii.
 
In planed.
 
Reflect along the mirror planei.
 
The substituents and their bond direction on the left and right of the chiralcarbon switch sidesii.
 
Middle and top substituents stay the same3.
 
If drawing diagraming showing bonding, remember toa.
 
Include bond angles clearlyb.
 
Show atoms that are on the same plane (with dotted lines)
 
Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Mingc.
 
Show the overall charge with a big square bracket4.
 
Bond angle with tetrahedral and lone pairs (two parts to the answer)a.
 
No lone pairs (CCl
4
) = 109.5
o
 b.
 
1 lone pair (NH
3
) = Less than 109.5
o
, approximately 107
o
 c.
 
2 lone pair (H
2
O) = Less than 109.5
o
, approximately 104.5
o
 
Gas laws
1.
 
Take note of the units in the equation

=

 a.
 
Pressure is in Pascal or atmb.
 
Volume is in
3
 c.
 
Temperature is in Kelvin2.
 
At higher temperatures, there is less positive deviation is less, as when temperatureincreases, the volume increases, causing less deviation3.
 
For drawing the deviation from ideal gasesa.
 
At low temperatures (and pressures), negative deviation as attractive forces arepresent to reduce the impact on the walls of the containeri.
 
Depends on inter-molecular bondingb.
 
At high pressures (and temperatures), positive deviation as volume of molecules aresignificant, increasing the volume of the container above the expected valuei.
 
Depends on Mr
Periodic table
 
1.
 
Explain atomic radius changea.
 
Describe nuclear charge changeb.
 
Describe screening effect changec.
 
Describe effective nuclear charge changed.
 
State change2.
 
Describing melting pointa.
 
State structureb.
 
Metalsi.
 
Number of electrons delocalizedii.
 
Charge of cationiii.
 
Radius of cationiv.
 
Relative strength of metallic bondc.
 
Non-metalsi.
 
No hydrogen bonding
 
Mr hence size of electron cloud
 
Polarisability
 
Relative strength of VDW forces of attractionii.
 
Hydrogen bonding present
 
Number of hydrogen bonds per molecule
 
Relative strength of hydrogen bondsd.
 
Hence more/less energy required to break the bonds
 
Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming3.
 
Describing electrical conductivitya.
 
Availability of mobile charge carriersi.
 
Metals
 
Valence electrons delocalized into the sea of delocalized electronsii.
 
Silicon
 
Semiconductor
 
At high temperatures, the electrons are excited to a higher energystate and are delocalizediii.
 
Non-metals
 
Valence electrons are localized in a covalent bond, hence no mobilecharge carriers4.
 
Describing Ionization energya.
 
It is the minimum energy required to completely remove 1 mole of electrons from 1mole of ground state gaseous atoms (or ions)b.
 
Affected byi.
 
Atomic radiusii.
 
Change in subshelliii.
 
Interelectronic repulsion5.
 
Describing how Period 3 non-metals react with watera.
 
They have vacant energetically-accessible 3d orbitals that can form a dative bondwith water molecules, by accepting an electron pair, thereby allowing hydrolysis tooccur
Chemical energetics
 1.
 
Definitionsa.
 
Definitions usually include “enthalpy change” with a few exceptionsi.
 
Lattice energy is the heat energy evolvedii.
 
Ionisation energy is the minimum energy requirediii.
 
Bond energy is the average energy needed to break2.
 
When doing lattice energy explanationa.
 
|

 

|
+
 b.
 
Compare the charge and radius of the ions involvedc.
 
When explaining, say the magnitude of lattice energy, not ‘more or less’, as it isalways negative3.
 
Always have state symbols when writing chemical energetics equations, as a change in statewill have a marked difference4.
 
Don’t forget the positive and negative signs in your answers!5.
 
The reason for second ionisation energy being greater than the first isa.
 
Nuclear charge of atom remains constantb.
 
Remaining electrons more strongly attractedc.
 
Overcome attractive forces between positively charged ion and negatively-chargedelectrons6.
 
When drawing an energy diagrama.
 
Don’t forget state symbols

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