made from fish and was the first adhesiveused for photographic emulsions for photofilm and photo resist coatings for photoengraving processes.
is made from a proteinisolated from milk. The extraction processcreates an adhesive that is waterproof. Itsfirst use was in bonding the seam of cigarette paper. It provides a fast-setting bond that requires very little adhesive; onegram of adhesive can bond 2,000 cigarettes.
is a carbohydrate extractedfrom vegetable plants such as corn, rice, wheat, potatoes, and is probably better known as paste. Major use area is in bonding paper and paper products suchas bookbinding, corrugated boxes, paper bags, and wallpaper paste (nonremovable);it is also used as a sizing in textiles. Thelaundry uses starch on your shirt collarsto stiffen and give shape to your shirt.
is made from a natural polymer found in trees and woody plants. It is the adhesive used on thecellophane wrapper on cigarette packs; it is the adhesive on decals we put on windows; and, interestingly enough, theadhesive used on the strippable wallpaper we have in our homes that allows us toremove the paper easily.
Rubber-Based Solvent Cements
areadhesives made by combining one or morerubbers or elastomers in a solvent. Thesesolutions are further modified withadditives to improve the tack or stickiness,the degree of peel strength, flexibility, viscosity, or body. Rubber-based adhesivesare used in a wide variety of applications,such as contact adhesive for plasticlaminates like counter tops, cabinets,desks, and tables. It is the adhesive onpressure-sensitive tapes used as floor tileadhesive and carpeting adhesive. Self-sealing envelopes and shipping containersuse rubber cements. Solvent-based rubber adhesives have been the mainstay of theshoe and leather industry.
are adhesive systems made by a complex chemical reaction. Variousresins are made synthetically by reactingtwo or more chemicals. The resultant resincan then be reacted or cured by the additionof another chemical called a hardener, or catalyst. The basic epoxy resin systems arefurther modified to change their physicalproperties by the addition of such thingsas: flexibilizers for impact resistance andflexibility; dilutents or solvents to reducethe viscosity fillers; and reinforcements likeglass fiber, alumina, silica sand, clay, metalpowders and flakes to change propertiessuch as heat and electrical resistance, fireretardance, strength and adhesion tocertain substrates or materials.Epoxy adhesives can bond a wide variety of substrates (particularly metals) with highstrength. They have been used to replacesome traditional metalworking methods of joining like nuts and bolts, rivets, welding,crimping, brazing, and soldering. High-strength epoxies are used to construct rotor blades for helicopters and to attachaluminum skins to the struts of aircraft wings and tail sections. Those of you whoski may know that your skis are laminatesof plastics, wood, and metal joined with anepoxy. If you are a golfer, the heads of your clubs are bonded with an epoxy.
Hot Melt Adhesives
are thermoplasticpolymers that are tough and solid at roomtemperature but are very liquid at elevatedtemperatures. The origin of hot meltsprobably started with the use of sealing wax used to seal documents and letters with a signature ring or stamp, but the art of hot melts was not pursued until the 1960s.