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Unit 2

Unit 2

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Published by: Jenny Maricelita Dnz on Nov 02, 2012
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UNIT 2
PART I. THERE TO BE (HABER, EXISTIR)
 
A. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS - THERE ARE
Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. Son equivalentes a laexpresión HAY, en castellano.
THERE IS
/
δear íz/
se usa con sustantivos singulares oincontables.
THERE
 
ARE
/
δear á:r 
/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. Normalmente, en elsingular, se usa la contracción
THERE´S
/
δéarz/
.
 
There is a book
on the desk
/
δear íz e búk on δe désk
/
(
Hay un libro
sobre el escritorio)
There´s a car
in the car park.
/
δéarz e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk
/
(
Hay un auto
en elestacionamiento)
There are 10 students
in my class. /
δ
ear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (
Hay 10 alumnos
 en mi curso)
La forma negativa se expresa con
THERE IS NOT
/
THERE ISN´T
 
/
δ
ear íznt/
o
THEREARE NOT
/
THERE AREN´T
 
/
δ
ear á:rent/
There is not a book
on the desk. /
δ
ear iz nót e búk on
δ
e désk/
 
There isn´t a car
in the car park. /
δ
éar íznt e ká:r in
δ
e ká:r pa:rk/
 
La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra
THERE
.
Is there a book
on the desk?
/íz
δ
er e búk on
δ
e désk/
 
Are there any chairs
in the room? /
á:r 
δ
er éni tchéarz in
δ
e rúm
/
Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con
There is
y
Thereare
:
HOW MUCH?
/
háu match/
(¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y
HOW MANY
? /
háu méni
/(¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?)
How much whisky is there
in the glass?
There´s very little
(
whisky)
.
How much water is there
?
There isn´t any
(
water).
There´s no water
.
How many doors are there
in this room?
There´s only one
(
door)
.
How many chairs are there
?
There aren´t any
 
(chairs
).
There are nochairs.
Como ud. ha advertido, la palabra
SOME
/
sám/
(algo, algunos / as) solamente se usaen forma afirmativa. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra
ANY
/
éni/
. En laforma negativa se puede usar 
NOT ANY
/
not éni
/ o
NO
/nóu/.
 
 
Estudie la siguiente tabla:
 Affirmative
SOMEThere´s some
water in the glass. /
δ
éarz sam wóter in
δ
eglá:s/
 
There are some
trees in the garden
/
δ
éar á:r sam trí:z in
δ
e gá:rdn/
 Negative
NOT ANYThere isn´t any
water in the glass. /
δ
ear íznt éni wóter in
δ
e glá:s/
 
There aren´t any
trees in the garden. /
δ
ear á:rent éni trí:zin
δ
e gá:rdn/
 
NOThere ´s no
water in the glass. /
δ
éarz nóu wóter in
δ
e glá:s/
 
There are no
trees in the garden. /
δ
ear á:r nóu trí:z in
δ
egá:rdn/
 Interrogative
ANY?Is there any
water in the glass? /
iz
δ
earz éni wóter in
δ
eglá:s/
 
Are there any
trees in the garden? .
/a:r 
δ
ear éni trí:z in
δ
e gá:rdn/
 
Note el uso de
LITTLE
/
lítl/
(poco/a),
FEW
/
fiú
:/ (pocos/as) y
A LOT OF
/
e lót ov
/(bastante/bastantes).
There´s very
little
water in the glass /
δ
éarz véri lítl wóter in
δ
e glá:s
/ Hay muy poca agua enel vasoThere´s
a lot of
ice in my glass. /
δ
éarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/
Hay bastante hielo en mi vasoThere are very
few
desks in the room. /
δ
ear a:r véri fiú: desks in
δ
e rú:m
/ Hay muy pocosescritorios en la salaThere are
a lot of
chairs in the room. /
δ
ear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m
/ Hay bastantes sillas enla sala.
La expresión
a lot of
normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. En las oracionesnegativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras
much
o
many,
según sea elcaso
 Affirmative
a lot of
There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /
δ
éarz e lót ov shúgar in
δ
ebóul/
 There are a lot of books on the shelf. /
δ
éar á:r e lót ov bukson
δ
e shélf 
/Negative
not muchnot many
There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. /
δ
éar íznt mutch shúgar in
δ
e bóul
/There aren´t many books on the shelf. /
δ
éar á:rent ménibuks on
δ
e shélf/
 Interrogative
much?many?
Is there much sugar in the bowl? /
iz
δ
éar mutch shúgar in
δ
ebóul/
 Are there many books on the shelf? /
á:r 
δ
éar méni buks on
δ
e shélf/
 
 
El artículo indefinido
A/AN
(un,una) no tiene una forma para el plural, por lo tanto seomite. Normalmente el artículo
A/AN
se reemplaza por las palabras
SOME
/
sam
/algunos/as,
SEVERA
L
/séverl
/ varios/as,
MANY
/
méni
/ muchos/as.
There is
a tree
in the garden. There are
trees
in the gardenThere are
some trees
in the gardenThere are
several trees
in the garden.There are
many trees
in the garden.
Cuando
THERE IS/THERE ARE
van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo, en lasnegaciones generalmente se usa la palabra
NO
/
nóu/
There´s water
in that bottle.
There´s no
water in that bottle.
There are flowers
in the garden.
There are no flowers
in the garden
Finalmente, estudie la siguiente tabla:
There is
somea lot ofmucha littlevery littleno/not any
milk in this bottleThere are
someseveralmanya lot ofa fewvery fewno/not any
flowers in thegarden.
B. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS - THERE WERE
El pasado de
THERE IS/THERE ARE
se expresa usando
THERE WAS
/
δear wóz
/ /
THERE WERE
 
/δear we:r/
La negación se expresa usando la palabra
NOT
después de
WAS y WERE
. Normalmente se usan las contracciones
THERE WASN´T
/
δear wózent/
THERE WEREN´T
/
δear wé:rent
/.
La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de laspalabras
WAS y WERE
con la palabra
THERE
.
 
Escuche, lea y aprenda:
There was a lot of noise in the room
/
δ
ear was e lot ov nóis in
δ
e rú:m/
Había bastante ruidoen la sala.
There were many people absent
. /
δ
ear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchaspersonas ausentes.

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