25- Where from do you come to know that least importance was given to English as a subject atHarrow School?The writer tells that all intelligent and clever boys went to learn Latin and Greek whereas the dull andaverage students were offered only English. He also regards English as the most disregarding thing. Itshows, in the order of priority, English was at the lowest.26- How did the author present this story in a comic or funny manner?The author created fun In the story by using irony and verbal humor. In different situations, he usedhis power of imagination to develop comic incidents.27- Why did the writer think that he was a less intelligent student?In view of poor performance in the admission test, Churchill was placed in the lowest division of forthclass. Like other students of similar performance, he was considered a less intelligent student and hehad to study English, in spite of Latin or Greek.28- Churchill was taught English at Harrow and not Latin and Greek. Was it a gain or loss?Churchill learnt English at Harrow which later on proved to be a gain & not loss. All those boys wholearnt Latin and Greek had also to come down to English and Churchill was better than anybody else.
10- Sir Alexander Fleming (Patrick Pringle)
1- What are antiseptics and what is the antiseptic method?Antiseptics are chemical that kill germs. Carbolic acids and iodine are antiseptic. Lister used carbolicacid to sterilize his hands surgical instruments and patient's wounds, he called it antiseptic method. Butthere was a danger in this method. A chemical like carbolic acid which destroys germs can also killthe white cells of the blood.2- What are the chief defects of antiseptic method?The antiseptic method aimed to stop germs going into the body. But the chief defect of this methodwas that it killed not only the germs but also the white cells of the blood. Thus it did more harmthan good.3- What is the part played by the white cells of the blood in the human body?The white blood cells or Leucocytes are the body's natural amour against disease. When the germsenter into our body they are immediately attacked by these white cells and the disease is nothing buta fight between the germs and white cells. Therefore these cells should be made stronger to preventthe human body from diseases.4- Give an account of the early life of Fleming.When and where was Sir Alexander Fleming born?Describe in brief the family background of Alexander Fleming.Sir Alexander Fleming (born on August 6, 1881-1955), British bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, bestknown for his discovery of penicillin. Born near Darvel, Scotland, and educated at Saint Mary's HospitalMedical School of the University of London, he served as professor of bacteriology at St. Mary'sHospital Medical School from 1928 to 1948, when he became professor emeritus.He was the youngest of his seven brothers and sisters. He belonged to an agricultural familybut most of his brothers and sisters joined the profession of medicine. Thus, the family converted intoa medicine family. His father died when he was just seven years old. He studied at the Darvel Schooltill the age of 12, and then he studied at the Kilmarnock academy. At the age of 14 he went toLondon where he studied at the Regent Street Polytechnic. At the age of 16 he got the job of aclerk in a shipping firm for four years. He did not have enough money to study for a profession. Atthe age of 20 he received his share in his father’s property and resumed his studies. He decided to join St. Mary’s Medical College. After completing his graduation in medicine, he joined Wright’sLaboratory. It was the place from where he came across the problem of infected wounds and hestarted his experiments to solve the problem.5- How was penicillin discovered?How Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin?Write a short note on the achievements of Dr. Alexander Fleming.Write a note on penicillin as a wonder drug?It was Louis Pasteur who discovered that germs caused disease and Lord Lister found a chemical tokill these germs. He used carbolic acid to kill germs but it was found that carbolic acid whichdestroyed germs also destroyed the cells of the body. Mitchnikoff discovered that there were cellspresent in the blood. These white cells defended the body against the attack of disease. Now theproblem was to find a thing or an agent that could kill the germs but not harm the white cells. Thiswas done by Sir Alexander Fleming. In summer 1982, Fleming was appointed as Professor ofBacteriology in the University of London. One day he was conducting an experiment on the commongerms. By chance the mould spore was blown in through the window and dropped on the cultureplate. The mould or fungus began to grow and the germs round it began to disappear. This madehim think and investigates on the problem. This particular mould or fungus grows on wet bread orcheese in winter. Fleming made a pure culture of the moulds and checked its effect on other germs,the germs were instantly destroyed.The next step was to produce the antibacterial substance free from mould. Fleming did thisby plating the mould on a meat broth. It grew on the surface as a felt-like mass and turned thebroth yellow. After a week, the fluid was filtered and tested for its antibacterial properties. The resultswere favorable. He called it penicillin. His further experiments brought him to the conclusion thatpenicillin was three times as strong as carbolic acid and it did not harm the white cells.6- In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?As Fleming discovered penicillin by chance, he left the work he was doing and started examining fungiHe found out that he had discovered another natural antiseptic with far better possibilities thanlysozyme. The chief quality of penicillin was that it had no toxic effect on Leucocytes. Thus, it helpedleucocytes in their battle, without harming body cells. Later on, it was proved that penicillin, was threetimes as strong as carbolic acid.7- What do you know of the Oxford team?How did the Oxford team make penicillin more effective?Who concentrated penicillin for use?After the discovery of penicillin, the problem had changed. Now the question was that how penicillincan be concentrated. Penicillin is extremely unstable in its crude form and cannot be as much affectiveas it is. Afterwards, solution to concentrate it was found by an Oxford team, which was headed byProf Howard Florey and Dr. E.B. Chain. It included trained chemists and bacteriologist and had all theequipment. In 1943 they were succeeded to produce a practical concentration of penicillin.8- Write a note on penicillin as a wonder drag.The discovery of penicillin had brought a revolution in medical science. It proved to be a strongestweapon to fight against disease. Penicillin is considered as a wonder drug because it has savedmillions of people from dying of wounds and infection. The chief quality of penicillin is that It has notoxic effect on white blood cells. Penicillin was the first natural antiseptic and its discovery has openeda whole new world of science. After it many kinds of antibiotics were discovered the best known ofthese drugs at present is streptomycin.9- Was Fleming proud of his discovery?How did Fleming response to the fame and honor he received?Fleming became famous all over the world after his discovery of penicillin. But he was not proud ofhimself in any way. When other praised him, he always said that he had done nothing. God andnature created it; he just found it by the stroke of luck. When he was showered honor and fame, henever liked the gratitude of people. Whenever it was possible for him, he slipped form people andwent back to his laboratory.10- Why could not penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?The American laboratories are no doubt well equipped but air conditioned and air tight. Even dustcould not come through them. Obviously, penicillin was discovered by chance when some mould spore,flying in air, came thorough an open window and dropped in the culture plate. In an air tightlaboratory, it is impossible. The American laboratories are dustless and air conditioned. Hence it couldnot be discovered in an American laboratory.11- Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. What are they?Louis Pasture discovered germs and opened a new field of discovery for scientists. It gave the way toFleming to discover, penicillin. Similarly, the discovery of penicillin paved the way for later scientists todiscover new similar antibiotics to hit different type of germs. Penicillin is a growth inhibiting treatmentof disease. It provoked others to go to find out other similar natural substances.12- What is an antiseptic?J. Lister, an English surgeon found that germs could be killed by sterilization. He discovered achemical, carbolic acid to kill these germs. Such a chemical which can kill germs, like carbolic acid oriodine is called antiseptic. Carbolic Acid was the first Antiseptic used by Lister.13- How can germs be destroyed?Germs can be destroyed by heat or poisoned by certain chemicals.14- Describe antiseptic method in your own words and what was the objective of antiseptic method?Who discovered germs?A French chemist, Louis Pasteur discovered that a living organism causes diseases. He named it"germ". Then, An English Surgeon, Lord Lister, applied Pasteur’s discovery to surgery. These twoscientists revolutionized the theory and practice of medicine. The chemical he discovered arid used tokill these germs was called antiseptic and the process of killing germs through this method is calledantiseptic method.15- What do you understand by aseptic method?In aseptic method, heat was used to sterilize instruments, clothing operating theatre equipments beforethey were used.16- Why did not the aseptic method Prove effective in the treatment of war wounds?Aseptic method did not prove effective because in every case, the wound was infected before treatmentcould be begun.17- Who revolutionized the theory and practice of medicine?Louis Pasteur, a French Chemist, discovered that diseases are caused by micro-organisms.18- Which was the first antiseptic used in the history of medicine?J. Lister, an English surgeon discovered that germs can be killed by sterilization. The chemical hediscovered and used to kill these germs was Carbolic Acid, which he named antiseptic. The process ofkilling germs through this method is called antiseptic method.19- What would happen to the operated wounds before consciousness regarding germs?Before discovery of germs, surgeons would infect operated wounds without knowing, with germs on theirsurgical instruments on operating table.20- Which antiseptic was used for the first time and who used it?Joseph Lister used carbolic acid as the first antiseptic, He sterilized his instruments with carbolic acidused it to kill germs on his hands, on the patient’s skin and even in the air in the operating theatre.21- Why did Fleming join St. Mary’s medical school?Alexander Fleming choose St. Mary’s medical school for no better reason than that he had playedwater-polo against the hospital team when he was student of school.22- Who revolutionized the theory and practice of medicine?As a historic fact, Louis Pasture revolutionized the theory and practice of medicine by discovering thatliving organisms cause diseases. He called them "germs". Later on, discovery of penicillin was anotherlandmark in the theory and practice of medicine.23- What happened with the operated wounds before application of antiseptic method?Before the discovery of antiseptic method, operated wounds got infected and disease causing germsenter into the body.24- What problems develop by inserting carbolic acid into the body?When carbolic acid was applied to an infected wound or operated wound, or it was injected into thebody, healthy body cells and white cells also die with the germs. Therefore, the method was moredamaging than curing.25- What was the object of Lister’s antiseptic method?The object of Lister’s antiseptic method was to stop germs from getting into the human body, and tokill those which had already entered in it.26- What was the main problem with injecting carbolic acid in the body?Besides killing germs, carbolic acid destroyed body cells also, The quantity required to kill all thegerms was sufficient to kill the patient.