64 Mircea Grigorovschi
c) a form of human community characterized by a relatively largenumber of people, diverse economic activity with a predominance in thesecondary and tertiary sectors, and having a high degree of social andinstitutional organization (Gabriel Pescariu).
2. Urban Settlements
Urban settlements represent a place in which most work resources arefocused on non-agricultural activities, with a diversified facility level, exerting aconstant and meaningful social-economic impact, concerning the surroundingarea (Law 351/2001, section h PATN – network localities).Essentially any human settlement represents a ground settlement, on aspatial layout of society. In this way any human settlement bears the footprint of defining characteristics given by the social-economic, political and culturalclimate. The city represents a social space defined as a spatial setting in whichgroups live, has a social structure and this groups are conditioned by ecologicaland cultural factors (Ch.De Lawe).Taking into account these determinations of the spatially conditionedsocial settlement, it comes as a second nature for the cities to adapt to thechanges in our social structure. The changes in the collective mind, in social behavior, economic, cultural of social groups of urban actors, have determined,as a consequence, fundamental changes in spatial structure of the city and theydefined a series of directions in urban development.Defining factors of urban structural diversification, of their evolution intime and space, are mainly about structural, functional and cultural diversity.Although the urban development objectives submitted in spatial studies andstrategies like lowering extensive development, existing anthropic urbanstructure restructuring, recycling of urban areas, restructuring of the existingspatial technological configurations in durable development directions, thecontemporary evolution in Romania fully contradicts this at least on some levelsand directions.
3. Urban Evolution Trends
Analysing the past 20 years, we can see two distinct periods in urbanevolution. The first is the transition period between 1990 and 2008,accompanied by a whole range of social phenomena, economic and cultural,developed on an undefined spatial support, chaotic at times, and respondingnearly all of the time to efficiency rather than a durable and comfort baseddimension of urban living.The second period started in 2008, and stands characterize by the startof economical depression doubled by a political crisis. Also, the difference between the two periods stands only in the rhythm of evolving phenomena. If inthe transition period the rhythm of urban development needed a strong spatial