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Simulation of Gas-Solid Flow & Design Modifications of Cement Plant Cyclones

Simulation of Gas-Solid Flow & Design Modifications of Cement Plant Cyclones

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06/04/2013

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Fifth International Conference on CFD in the Process Industries
 
CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia13-15 December 2006 
SIMULATION OF GAS-SOLID FLOW AND DESIGN MODIFICATIONSOF CEMENT PLANT CYCLONES
V. SINGH
1
, S. SRIVASTAVA
2
, R.CHAVAL
2
, V. VITANKAR
1
, B. BASU
1
*, M.C.AGRAWAL
2
1
Aditya Birla Management Corporation Ltd, Mumbai, India.
2
Grasim Industries Ltd., Cement Business, Mumbai, India.(Aditya Birla Management Corporation Ltd and Grasim Industries Ltd. aremember companies of Aditya Birla Group)
ABSTRACT
The paper presents
D
esign development of cementindustry cyclone based on CFD along with pilot planttrials.Based on simulation of laboratory scale cyclone asexpressed in literature and in-house pilot plantexperiments, Reynolds stress model has been found topredict the turbulent flow field, pressure drop and particlecollection efficiency closely as compared to other standardturbulence models.Using the methodology developed, coal mill cyclone of one of the cement plant in India was simulated by CFD.The predicted pressure drop and separation efficiencywere compared with measured data to show goodagreement. Using the CFD model, the cyclone dimensionswere optimized to improve the cyclone separationefficiency without any major change in pressure drop. Thenew design was successfully implemented in the plant.
NOMENCLATURE :
C
D
drag coefficientd particle diameterU Velocityu
i
velocity componentu’ fluctuating velocity
v
p
particle velocityk kinetic energy
ε
kinetic energy dissipation
ρ
gas densityt time
µ
viscosity of fluid
INTRODUCTION
In cement manufacturing industries, large-sized cycloneseparators are used as main process equipments insignificant numbers for handling high volumetric flowrates of dust-laden gases. Typically, the cyclones in acement plant of capacity about 1 million TPY are 10m talland 5m in diameter. Their performance is most commonlyexpressed as the collection efficiency or separationefficiency
η
, measured as the weight ratio of the dustcollected to the dust entering in the cyclone, and thepressure drop. Their operating pressure drop rangesbetween 100–200 mm Wg. Cyclones efficiencies stronglydepend on their design parameters and could vary from 80% to over 95 % for high efficiency designs, dependingupon particle cut-size. These two critical processparameters are strongly linked to the geometry and theflow patterns in the cyclone.In its simplest form, a cyclone consists of a cylindricalshell fitted with tangential inlet through which the dustygas enters; an axial inlet pipe for discharging the cleanedgas, and a conical base with dust discharge. The mainobjective in the cyclone is to create a vortex which willcentrifuge the dust particles to the walls; whence they canbe transported into the dust collecting hopper out of theinfluence of the spinning gases through the boundarylayer.In order to understand the important features of a welldesigned cyclone, it is necessary first to study the flowpattern and particle separation efficiency. Prediction of gas flow and performance of cyclone by ComputationalFluid Dynamics (CFD) have become increasingly popular.CFD helps to understand the complex flow patterns incyclones and develop efficient cyclone with low pressuredrops and high separation efficiency.The conventional method of predicting the flow field andthe collection efficiency of a cyclone is empirical(Stairmand (1951) Leigh and Licht (1972),Muschelknautz, and Greif, (1997)). Computation fluiddynamics (CFD) has great potential to predict the flowfield characteristics and particle trajectories inside thecyclone as well as the pressure drop (Griffins and Boyson(1996)).One of the first CFD simulations was done by Boysan et.al. (1982).He found that the standard k–
ε
turbulencemodel is inadequate to simulate flows with swirl becauseit leads to excessive turbulence viscosities and unrealistictangential velocities. The standard k-
ε
, RNG k-
ε
andrealizable k-
ε
model was not optimized for stronglyswirling flows found in cyclones (Gimbin et.al (2005)).However, to reduce the computational effort, the RNG k-
ε
 model can be used with about 12 % deviation onexperimental data (Griffins and Boyson, 1996). Thepressure-strain correlation in Reynolds stress model(RSM) with linear model by Lauder, Reece and Rodi(LRR model) (Lauder et. al, 1975) under-predicts thetangential velocity component close to the axis and withthe quadratic model by Speziale, Sarkar and Gastski (RSMmodel) (Speziale et. al. 1991) is qualitatively correct(Montaven et. al., 2000)If the inlet duct is ignored, the cyclone geometry is almostaxi-symmetric and a number of past CFD models haveutilized this feature to reduce the model to a two-dimensional case (Dugins and Frith, 1987, Hoffman et al.,(1996), Meina and Mori (1999)). Although this greatly* Corresondin author
 
 
reduces computational time, a two-dimensional model willbe limited, as the inlet location will break flow patternsymmetry. Furthermore such geometric simplificationscannot be used to assess changes to inlet design nor offsetvortex finders.Particle turbulent dispersion due to interaction betweenparticles and turbulent eddies of fluid is generally dealtwith by two methods (Loth, 2000); mean diffusion whichcharacterizes only the overall mean (time averaged)dispersion of particles caused by the mean statisticalproperties of the turbulence, and structural dispersionwhich includes the detail of the non-uniform particleconcentration structures generated by local instantaneousfeatures of the flow, primarily caused by the spatial-temporal turbulent eddies and their evolution. To predictthe mean particle diffusion in turbulent flow, bothLagrangian and Eulerian techniques can be used. Since theearly work of Yuu et al. (1978) and Gosman and Ioannides(1981), the stochastic Lagrangian model has shownsignificant success in describing the turbulent diffusion of particles.In the industry, the major challenge is to increaseproduction and reduce manufacturing cost. In order toachieve these objectives, cyclones are operated wellbeyond the design conditions resulting in the increasedpressure drop and reduced separation efficiency. In thepresent work, a systematic pilot-scale experimental studiesand CFD simulation of cyclone were undertaken tounderstand the flow pattern and the complex interactionbetween gas-solid flow to improve the cycloneperformance, i.e., higher solid separation and reducepressure drop.The objective of this work is to develop a CFD model tounderstand the flow patterns, predict cyclone performancefor laboratory scale, pilot scale and industrial scalecyclone and its application to carry out designmodification of industrial cyclones. In order to selectappropriate turbulence models to predict swirlingturbulent flow in the cyclone, experimental data of laboratory scale cyclone was used and pilot plantexperiments were carried out. A CFD simulationmethodology was developed for design of industrialcyclones. A number of cyclone designs have beensuccessfully modified and implemented using the aboveconcept.
MODEL DESCRIPTION
To predict the gas flow pattern and particle collectionefficiency, in cyclones the governing equation consists of the continuity and momentum balance equation for the gasphase and the particles are tracked in the Lagrangianmanner.
Gas Phase
Continuity equation for the gas phase is written as:
( )
0
=+
 ρ  ρ 
(1)The momentum balance equation for the continuousphase, gases flowing through the cyclone, is written as:
( )
( )
 ji
uu p
 ρ  µ  ρ  ρ 
.
+−∇=+
(2)The last term in the above equation requires closure interms of turbulence models. A very commonly usedturbulence model is standard k-
ε
model. However, due toits isotropic nature, it does not capture the turbulentswirling flow. In such case, the full Reynolds stress modelis recommended. The standard Reynolds stress model inANSYS CFX is based on the
ε
- equation.
( ) ( )
 ρε δ ε  ρ  µδ φ  ρ  ρ 
ijl jilskl ijij ji  ji
 xuuuu xPuu  xuu
32
    
+++=+
(3)
( ) ( )
( )
uuuuP
+=
ρ 
 The equation for kinetic energy dissipation is given by:
( )( ) ( )
    
++=+
llskl
 xuu xP x
ε ε  ρ  µδ  ρε ε ε  ρ  ρε 
ε ε 
21
(4)where,
21
ijijij
φ φ φ 
+=
 
        
+=
δ  ρε φ 
aaaaa
ssij
31
211
 
( )
ij
WaaW  aSaaS  aakS kS Pa
++
    
++ +=
 ρ δ  ρ  ρ  ρ φ 
543212
32
 
δ 
32
=
uua
 
( )
( )
+=
21
 
( )
( )
=
21
 where
a
 
is the anisotropy tensor, S is the strain rate, and Wis the vorticity
 
Particle transport
To predict the particle capture efficiency, it is necessary tosolve for the particle phase. In this work, it is assumed thatthe particle transport is affected by the gas flow however,the gas phase remains unaffected by particle phasemomentum. The particle transport is given by thefollowing equation which considers the drag andbuoyancy forces:
 
 
77 Tangential
0510152025303540-0.10-0.050.000.050.10
LDA ValuesSSG RSM
( )( )
gvvvv dt dvm
 f  p p f  p f  D f   p p
 ρ  ρ π πρ 
+=
32
6181
(5)The application of Lagrangian tracking in ANSYS CFXinvolves the integration of particle paths through thediscrete domain. In the present case, the parameters forparticle tracking and integration were carefully selected.
SIMULATIONS OF A LABORATORY SCALECYCLONE SEPARATOR
Ayers et. al. (1983) have measured axial and tangentialvelocities in a laboratory scale cyclone using LDA. Thecyclone is 0.205 m in diameter and 0.82 m tall.In this work, the simulation of gas flow in the cycloneswas carried out using two different turbulent models the k -
ε
model and the Reynolds stress model (Launder et.al.,1975). 66,000 grid nodes were used along with tetra-hedral meshes. The predicted axial and tangential velocitycomponents have been compared with the experimentaldata of Ayers et al. (1983). Due to anisotropic nature of the turbulent flow in cyclone, the simulation with k-
ε
 model failed to predict the measured profile of axial andtangential velocity profiles (these are not presented here).The results from the Reynolds stress model are presentedin Figures 1 and 2. It can be seen that predicted tangentialand axial velocity are in close agreement with themeasured values.It can be concluded that Reynolds stress model is able tocapture key features of turbulent swirling flows in thecyclone separator. Harwood & Slack (2003), Witt et. al.(1999) have also recommended Reynolds stress model forthe flows in cyclone.
 
PILOT SCALE CYCLONE: EXPERIMENT ANDSIMULATION
In order to further validate the CFD model at larger scale,a pilot scale cyclone was developed, and the pressure dropand particle separation efficiency were studied andcompared with the predicted values. The pilot cyclone wasfabricated and commissioned in-house. The geometry of pilot plant is shown in Figure 3.i) Location 32 cm from the cyclone top ii) Location 77 cm from the cyclone top
Figure1.
Comparison of predicted and measured (Ayers et al., 1983) tangential velocity component.
i
) Location 32 cm from the cyclone top ii) Location 77 cm from the cyclone top
Figure 2.
Comparison of predicted and measured (Ayers et.al.,1983) axial velocity component
 
32 Tangential
0510152025303540-0.1-0.0500.050.1
LDA ValuesSSG RSM
77 Axial
-12-10-8-6-4-202468-0.1-0.0500.050.1
LDA ValuesSSG RSM
32 Axial
-12-9-6-30369-0.1-0.0500.050.1
LDA ValuesSSG RSM

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