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World Religion“Review Questions Chapter 5”

World Religion“Review Questions Chapter 5”

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Published by Lisa Moss

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Lisa Moss on Nov 05, 2012
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1. Tell the story of the Buddha’s enlightenment. Examine the Four Noble Truths, the Noble
Eightfold Path, and the Middle Way.
The story of Buddha’s enlightenment includes
:
Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one. Buddha achieved enlightenment bygaining the three types of knowledge: complete knowledge of all his own past lives, of the karmaand rebirths of all others, and the Four Noble Truths. When referring to the Enlightenment of theBuddha and thus to the goal of the Buddhist path the word enlightenment is normally translatingthe Pali and Sanskrit word bodhi. Known as the Buddha, is said to have achieved fullenlightenment, known as perfect Buddhahood. According to the early Buddhist texts,
 
afterrealizing that meditative jhana was the right path to awakening, but that extreme asceticismdidn't work, Gautama discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way a path of moderationaway from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. In a famous incident, afterbecoming starved and weakened, he is said to have accepted milk and rice pudding from avillage girl named Sujata. Such was his emaciated appearance that she wrongly believed him tobe a spirit that had granted her a wish. Following this incident, Gautama was famously seatedunder a pipal tree now known as the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India, when he vowed never toarise until he had found the truth. Kaundinya and four other companions, believing that he hadabandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After a reputed 49 days of meditation, atthe age of 35, he is said to have attained Enlightenment. According to some traditions, thisoccurred in approximately the fifth lunar month, while, according to others, it was in the twelfthmonth. From that time, Gautama was known to his followers as the Buddha or "Awakened One."According to Buddhism, at the time of his awakening he realized complete insight into the causeof suffering, and the steps necessary to eliminate it. These discoveries became known as the FourNoble Truths, which are at the heart of Buddhist teaching. Through mastery of these truths, astate of supreme liberation, or Nirvana, is believed to be possible for any being. The Buddhadescribed Nirvana as the perfect peace of a mind that's free from ignorance, greed, hatred andother afflictive states. Nirvana is also regarded as the "end of the world", in that no personalidentity or boundaries of the mind remain. Contemporary of Mahavira (Jainism)Born about 563 BCE as Siddhartha, son of wealthy landowner, a Kshatriya chief, who tried toprotect him from world. According to birth legends, he was born of miraculous conception.Much told about Buddha is historically unverifiable. At 29 renounced life of wealth and becamewandering ascetic. Studied with two Brahmin teachers. Joined five ascetics living in self-denial
 — 
fasting, nakedness, exposure. Decided to practice the Middle Way and experiencedSupreme Enlightenment, after enlighten
ment he ―radiated light‖ and became a ―Buddha.‖
 
 
The Four Noble Truths about suffering
 
The Eightfold Path to liberation from suffering
 
Joined five ascetics living in self-denial
 — 
fasting, nakedness, exposure
 
 
Decided to practice the Middle Way and experienced Supreme Enlightenment
 
After enlightenment he ―radiated light‖ and became a ―Buddha‖
 
 
He taught the five ascetics:
 
The Four Noble Truths about suffering
 
The Eightfold Path to liberation from suffering
The Four Noble Truths:
The Buddha set Four Noble Truths in the first sermon at Sarnath, the foundation for all futureteachings.
• The First Noble Truth
- Life involves suffering, dissatisfaction, and distress. Is the existence of dukkha; suffering and dissatisfaction. We all experience grief, unfulfilled desires and sickness,
old age, physical pain, mental anguish, and eventually death. What we regard as a ―self‖ is an
ever changing bundle of fleeting feelings, sense impressions, ideas, and evanescent physicalmatter.
• The Second Noble Truth
- Suffering caused by craving, rooted in ignorance. Is the origin of dukkha is craving and clinging to sensory pleasures, to fame and fortune, for all things to stay asthey are or for them to be different and attachment to things and ideas.
• The Third Noble Truth
- Suffering will cease when craving ceases. Is that dukkha will ceasewhen craving and clinging cease. Illusion ends, insight into the true nature of things dawns, andnirvana is achieved.
• The Fourth Noble Truth
- There is a way to realize this state; the Noble Eightfold Path. Is thatcraving and suffering can be extinguished by following the Noble Eightfold Path- a path of ethical conduct, concentration, and wisdom.
The Eightfold Path:
Right View and 2. Right Intention = Wisdom 3.Right Speech 4. Right Action 5.Right Livelihood= Ethical Conduct 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration = MentalDevelopment.1. Right View-Right view is the beginning and the end of the path, it simply means to see and tounderstand things as they really are and to realize the Four Noble Truth.2. Right Intention-While right view refers to the cognitive aspect of wisdom, right intentionrefers to the volitional aspect, i.e. the kind of mental energy that controls our actions. Rightintention can be described best as commitment to ethical and mental self-improvement.
 
3. Right Speech - Right speech is the first principle of ethical conduct in the eightfold path.Ethical conduct is viewed as a guideline to moral discipline, which supports the other principlesof the path.4. Right Action-The right action, involves the body as natural means of expression, as it refers todeeds that involve bodily actions. Unwholesome actions lead to unsound states of mind, whilewholesome actions lead to sound states of mind.5. Right Livelihood- Right livelihood means that one should earn one's living in a righteous wayand that wealth should be gained legally and peacefully. The Buddha mentions four specificactivities that harm other beings and that one should avoid for this reason: 1.Dealing in weapons,2.Dealing in living beings (including raising animals for slaughter as well as slave trade andprostitution), 3.Working in meat production and butchery, and 4.Selling intoxicants and poisons,such as alcohol and drugs.6. Right Effort- Right effort can be seen as a prerequisite for the other principles of the path.Without effort, which is in itself an act of will, nothing can be achieved, whereas misguidedeffort distracts the mind from its task, and confusion will be the consequence.7. Right Mindfulness- Right mindfulness is the controlled and perfected faculty of cognition. Itis the mental ability to see things as they are, with clear consciousness.8. Right Concentration- The eighth principle of the path, right concentration, refers to thedevelopment of a mental force that occurs in natural consciousness, although at a relatively lowlevel of intensity, namely concentration. Concentration in this context is described as one-pointedness of mind, meaning a state where all mental faculties are unified and directed onto oneparticular object. Right concentration for the purpose of the eightfold path means wholesomeconcentration, i.e. concentration on wholesome thoughts and actions.
The Middle Way:
According to the Buddha, the Middle Way is a life lived between the extremes of self-denial andself-indulgence. Neither hedonist nor ascetic are to be imitated, for the Noble Eightfold Pathweaves its way through life avoiding both these unenlightened lifestyles. To see the world in thelight of the Buddha dharma is to have Right View, not only recognizing the suffering that iscaused by desire, but also the Path that leads to the ending of all such suffering, based in theRight Intention to let go of lust, ill-will, and cruelty. In other words, to lead a harmless life. Right
Speech, Action, and Livelihood grow out of such an intention, directing one’s lifestyle in a more
selfless, rather than selfish, direction. Right Effort is the avoidance of unwholesome states andthe cultivation of wholesome ones. Right Mindfulness and Concentration take this well-directedmind and hone it to the point where it is on the precipice of the great void that is known asNirvana. The perfection of the Path (that is, the Middle Way), is the ripening of the spiritual life;
it becomes a fruit ready to drop into the infinity of enlightenment…forever.
 
Living the Middle

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