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Emergency Response to Terrorism

Emergency Response to Terrorism

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FEMA/USFA/NFA-ERT:SSJune 1999
 
U. S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs –
Bureau of Justice Assistance 
 
Federal Emergency Management Agency
United States Fire Administration - National Fire Academy
 
EEMMEERRGGEENNCCYYRREESSPPOONNSSEETTOO 
 
SSEELLFF--SSTTUUDDYY 
 
EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO TERRORISM: SELF-STUDY
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCYUNITED STATES FIRE ADMINISTRATIONNATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY
FOREWORD
 
 The Federal Emergency ManagementAgency (FEMA) was established in 1979.FEMA's mission is to focus Federaleffort on preparedness for, mitigation of,response to, and recovery fromemergencies encompassing the fullrange of natural and manmadedisasters.FEMA's National Emergency TrainingCenter (NETC) in Emmitsburg,Maryland, includes the United StatesFire Administration (USFA), its NationalFire Academy (NFA), and the Emergency Management Institute (EMI). To achieve the USFA's legislatedmandate (under Public Law 93-498,October 29, 1974), "to advance theprofessional development of fire servicepersonnel and of other persons engagedin fire prevention and control activities,"the U.S. Fire Administration hasdeveloped an effective program linkagewith established fire training systemswhich exist at the State and local levels. The field courses of the USFA's NationalFire Academy have been sponsored by the respective State fire trainingsystems in every State. The USFA is proud to join with Stateand local fire agencies in providingeducational opportunities to themembers of the nation's fire services.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Foreword...................................... iii Table of Contents.......................... iii The Importance of This Training... ivCurriculum Overview.................... ivCourse Overview........................... iv Target Audience............................ vHow to Complete This Course....... vAdditional Copies of the Course.... viIntroduction................................. 1Module 1: Terrorism in Perspective............ 5Module 2:Incidents and Indicators............ 19Module 3:Self-Protection........................... 29Module 4:Scene Control............................ 39Module 5:Notification and Coordination.... 51Glossary....................................... 59Bibliography................................. 65Appendix A: Terrorism IncidentAnnex to the Federal ResponsePlan........................................... 67Appendix B: Presidential DecisionDirective 39 (Unclassified).......... 85Appendix C: Related Course List.. 89Answer Keys to Learning Checks.. 97Final ExamApplication Form and Answer Sheet
iii
 
EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO TERRORISM: SELF-STUDY
 
THE IMPORTANCE OF THISTRAINING
You
 
are one of the first to arrive on thescene of a suspected terrorist incident.As a first responder trained at theawareness level, you are among the firstto witness or discover an incidentinvolving criminal activity or terrorismand to initiate an emergency responsesequence by notifying the properauthorities. In this role you need thefollowing competencies which you canacquire through training andprofessional experience:
an understanding of what terrorismis and the risks associated withsuch an incident;
an understanding of the potentialoutcomes associated with a terroristincident;
the ability to recognize the presenceof, and identify, criminal activity orterrorism in an emergency;
an understanding of the role of thefirst responder as it relates tocomponents of an emergency response plan, including sitesecurity and the U.S. Department of  Transportation's (DOT)
North American Emergency Response Guidebook 
;
the ability to realize the need foradditional resources, and to makeappropriate notifications to anemergency communication center;and
the ability to self-protect, keepingresponder safety as a priority.
CURRICULUM OVERVIEW
In October 1996, at the USFA, anumber of prominent subject matterexperts performed a needs assessmentand formulated a curriculum directionfor the USFA, including the NFA, in thearea of emergency response toterrorism. As a result, the NFA willoffer new courses as part of its existingHazardous Materials Curriculum. The USFA's NFA will use the five-levelhazardous materials training model indesigning these Emergency Response to Terrorism training courses. OSHA CFR1910.120 is the basis for this five-levelmodel. These levels are awareness,operations, technician, specialist, andincident command. Occasionally, thematerial touches on operational andmanagerial issues. However, the intentis to introduce first responders to theconsequences of emergency response toterrorism. The response to terrorismtrack will include, in addition to thiscourse, basic concepts for firstresponders (complementing andenhancing this self-study module forindividuals trained to the operationslevel), tactical considerations (forindividuals trained to the technician orspecialist levels), and incidentmanagement (for incident commandpersonnel). The USFA's response toterrorism training, like its hazardousmaterials training, is consistent withthe National Fire ProtectionAssociation's Professional Qualifications471, 472, and 473. The NFA plans torelease all these courses during 1997and 1998.
COURSE OVERVIEW
 This self-study course is designed toprovide you with a general introductionto the basic concepts for first-responderawareness at the scene of a potentialterrorist incident. To master the basicsmore thoroughly, it is recommendedthat you complete this course as well asthe NFA's corresponding 16-hourcourse,
Emergency Response To Terrorism: Basic Concepts 
(ERT:BC)(available as of September 1997). This course includes five modules, aGlossary, a Curriculum Guide,Appendix A: Terrorism Annex to theFederal Response Plan, Appendix B:Presidential Decision Directive 39(Unclassified), and Appendix C: RelatedCourse List.
iv

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