Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Dynamic Simulation of Grinding Circuits

Dynamic Simulation of Grinding Circuits

Ratings: (0)|Views: 175 |Likes:
Published by Patricio Leonardo

More info:

Published by: Patricio Leonardo on Nov 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/30/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Dynamic simulation of grinding circuits
Yi Liu
*
, Steven Spencer
a
CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234, Australia
Received 1 April 2004; accepted 12 May 2004
Abstract
A flexible and powerful dynamic simulation approach to grinding circuit simulation has recently been developed in CSIRO Min-erals. The MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical programming environment has been used to construct a library of dynamic mathemat-ical models of a number of key grinding and separation devices and to link them into various complex dynamic grinding circuits.True real-time dynamic simulation and visualisation of interlinked unit process operations in grinding circuits of arbitrary complex-ity can readily be achieved.The application of the dynamic simulation approach can help greatly in understanding the sometimes complex, nonlinear behav-iour and dynamic interactions in various grinding circuits. Dynamic simulation can be used to test ‘‘what-ifs’’ in grinding processoperations such as circuit response to variations in feed and unit operation characteristics. It is a cheap and effective means of inves-tigating circuit optimisation without the risk of possible damage to operating units or production of a large amount of unwantedproduct during a physical optimisation process. Dynamic simulation is also extremely useful in developing and testing new ideas forprocess soft-sensors and control. The experience and knowledge gained in dynamic simulation of grinding circuits is directly appli-cable to other dynamic flowsheet modelling and optimisation problems in the minerals and process engineering industries. Theadvantages of building flowsheet models within the MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment include the ability to readilydevelop and modify continuous, discrete and/or hybrid models of individual unit operations, with solution of the flowsheet systemby a powerful in-built suite of equation solvers and analysis of results utilising extensive existing graphical capabilities. Flowsheetmodels of arbitrary complexity can easily be graphically developed, while individual unit models can be developed in terms of graph-ical block diagrams and/or customised block models written in computer code.
Ó
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Comminution; SAG milling; Modelling; Simulation
1. Introduction
Real time dynamic computer simulation has been apowerful tool not only in traditional high-tech aero-space and military industries, but also in other areassuch as the automotive, steel making, and chemicalprocessing industries. However, until very recently, therehas been limited practical application of dynamicsimulation in most of the mineral processing industry,instead relying on pilot plant studies and/or steady-stateflowsheet simulation for plant design, equipment dimen-sioning and pre-control optimisation.With recent progress in on-line measurement in min-eral processing, there are an increasing number of min-eral processing variables that can be measured on-linein real time (Death et al., 2002). Soft sensor models arealso increasingly being developed for critical plant varia-bles that have previously been unavailable (Gonzalez,1999).Thisprogresshasgreatlyimprovedtheopportuni-ties for more advanced control techniques to be appliedto mineral processing. To do this, a full understanding
0892-6875/$ - see front matter
Ó
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2004.05.018
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 2 9710 6731; fax: +61 2 97106789.
E-mail addresses:
yi.liu@csiro.au(Y. Liu),steven.spencer@csiro.au(S. Spencer).This article is also available online at:www.elsevier.com/locate/minengMinerals Engineering 17 (2004) 1189–1198
 
of the dynamic behaviour of a processing circuit and thedynamic interactions between the external process varia-bles open to manipulation and internal (and perform-ance) variables of the circuit is crucial before anyadvanced process control can be successfully imple-mented.Realtimedynamicsimulationprovidesapower-ful tool to gain such an understanding with minimumassociated cost.Many simulation packages and techniques alreadyexist for flowsheet simulation in the mineral processingindustry. They have been widely and successfully usedfor plant design, capacity planning (equipment sizing),circuit optimisation, problem diagnosis and costing pur-poses. However, most of these existing simulation pack-ages are based on steady state analysis (for instanceMETSIM, USIM PAC, Limn and JKSimMet) andmay utilise empirical (and in the worst cases
Ô
black-box
Õ
) models of limited generality for individual unitoperations. Such packages cannot simulate the dynamicbehaviour and interactions of processing units within acircuit during transitional periods between various stea-dy states (including prediction of transition times), norcan they capture the real-time dynamic interactions be-tween external process variables (e.g. feed variations),internal variables (e.g. grinding mill load), and perform-ance variables (e.g. product size distribution and flowrate) of a processing circuit. Such dynamic variationsand interactions can cause major problems for processcontrol and optimisation, most notably, in the case of semi-autogenous grinding/autogenous grinding (SAG/AG) mills in primary grinding circuits. Some dynamicsimulation packages do exist (for instance AspenDynamics and SysCAD). In the case of the Aspen suiteof products, their use may be viewed as relatively highcost and suitable largely as a
Ô
high end
Õ
solution to flow-sheet modelling needs for most of the mineral processingindustry. In the case of SysCAD, the dynamic capabilityis available but to the authors knowledge has so farhas largely been used as a means to obtain a steadystate configuration for analysis. It is also known thatSIMULINK has been used for simulation of the alu-mina refinery process and testing of control strategiesat Nabalco–Alcan Gove Pty Ltd. However, theapproach has not to our knowledge been extended forgeneral use in the mineral processing industry.It is our intention to explore the techniques of dy-namic simulation used in other industries (under theMATLAB/SIMULINK environment) for developmentand application in mineral processing dynamic flowsheetsimulation. The main reasons to use SIMULINK are itsmodular approach to model building, open model struc-ture, ease of changing circuit configurations and links,powerful real time graphic display functions for processvariables, and integrated advanced nonlinear dynamicsystem solvers. A flexible and powerful dynamic simula-tion flowsheet modelling approach has accordingly beendeveloped, with specific application in grinding circuitdynamic simulation. The reasons for the choice of grind-ing circuits as the initial area for model development isthe relative maturity of dynamic mathematical modelsfor some of the unit operations and the interest in dy-namic control of problematic unit operations such asSAG/AG mills. The approach exploits extensions of lit-erature dynamical mathematical models of grinding millunit operation developed into a SIMULINK unit modelgraphical library and the flexibility/capacity of SIMU-LINK to link these individual units into complex dy-namic flowsheets. In this manner validated individualunit models can be linked in an arbitrary manner andused to perform true real-time dynamic simulations.The application of the dynamic simulation approachcan help greatly in understanding the sometimes com-plex, nonlinear behaviour and dynamic interactions invarious grinding circuits. Dynamic simulation can beused to test ‘‘what-ifs’’ in grinding process operationssuch as circuit response to variations in feed and unitoperation characteristics. It is a cheap and effectivemeans of investigating circuit control and optimisationwithout the risk of possible damage to operating unitsor production of a large amount of unwanted productduring a physical plant studies. Dynamic simulation isalso extremely useful in developing and testing new ideasfor process soft-sensors and control.The next section briefly describes the main mathemat-ical models used in our dynamic simulations. Section 3summarises the general features of the simulation ap-proach and the specifics of the comminution model li-brary constructed for dynamic simulation of grindingcircuits. Several dynamic simulation examples are givenin Section 4. Section 5 concludes the paper with some re-marks on the flexibility of the approach, possible futureextensions and practical applications.
2. Dynamic models for grinding circuit unit operations
The key unit model in a grinding circuit is the grind-ing device itself, in many flowsheets being a SAG/AGand ball mills, respectively for primary and secondarygrinding. There is a well-known mathematical modelfor ball mill operation based on the population balancemodelling approach, with the assumption that milldynamics can be modelled by a number of perfect mixersin series (see,Whiten, 1974; Austin et al., 1984). Let
(
t
) = [
x
1
(
t
),
x
2
(
t
),
. . .
,
x
n
(
t
)]
T
be the vector representingthe mass of solids in discrete size fractions in a perfectmixer, then single mixer ball mill breakage in a mill withconstant hold-up can be modelled as governed by thefollowing equation:d
 X 
ð
Þ
d
¼ ð
 B
ð
Þ À
Þ
ð
Þ
 X 
ð
Þ
:
ð
1
Þ
1190
Y. Liu, S. Spencer / Minerals Engineering 17 (2004) 1189–1198
 
Here
(
t
) is the breakage distribution function (lowertriangular matrix),
(
t
) is the breakage rate (selection)function (diagonal matrix), and
is the identity matrix.It is usually assumed that the breakage distribution andbreakage rate functions are constant matrices, and canbe estimated from batch grinding tests (see,Austinet al., 1984; Weller et al., 1997, 2000). To model aSAG/AG mill, as well as to reflect possible ore hardnesschanges in the feed, the following single mixer nonlineargrinding phenomenological model was developed by us:d
 X 
ð
Þ
d
¼ ð
 B
ð
Þ À
Þ
b
ð
Þð
c
ð
Þ
ð
Þ þ
a
a
ð
Þ
 X 
ð
ÞÞ½
 X 
ð
Þ ð
2
Þ
Here
(
t
) and
(
t
) are the same as in Eq.(1),and
a
(
t
) is a breakage rate (lower triangular matrix) repre-senting the effect of autonomous grinding. The constant0
6
a
6
1 is a structure parameter. When
a
= 0, themodel simulates a ball mill, 0 <
a
< 1 simulates a SAGmill, and when
a
= 1 and
(
t
) = 0, the model simulatesan AG mill. Function
b
(
t
) is used to simulate changesin feed ore hardness. The model simulates ‘‘softer’’ orewhen
b
(
t
) < 1, and
b
(
t
) > 1 for ‘‘harder’’ ore, and
b
(
t
) = 1 returns to ‘‘normal’’ ore hardness. Similarly,function
c
(
t
) is used to simulate the effects of ball chargein the mill. When
c
(
t
) > 1, extra balls are added, when
c
(
t
) < 1 balls are consumed, and when
c
(
t
) = 1, we as-sume no variations of ball charge in the mill.Eq.(2)is restricted to modelling breakage in a singleperfect mixer. However, grinding mill operation gener-ally can be more reasonably modelled in terms of severalperfect mixers connected in series. This provides a loworder model for the dynamics of mass transportationthrough the mill. A critical parameter in this model isthe mean residence time of the solids in the mill. An-other consideration is that at the discharge end of anygrinding mill, there is generally a size classificationeffect, sometimes due to the presence of a grate orscreen. In these circumstances, the following modelbetter describes comminution in a perfect mixer:d
 X 
ð
Þ
d
¼ ð
 B
ð
Þ À
Þ
b
ð
Þð
c
ð
Þ
ð
Þ½þ
a
a
ð
Þ
 X 
ð
ÞÞ
 X 
ð
Þ þ
1
s
ð
 f 
ð
Þ À
ð
ÞÞ
 p 
ð
Þ ¼
ð
Þ
 X 
ð
Þð
3
Þ
Here
(
t
) = [
 f 
1
(
t
),
 f 
2
(
t
),
. . .
,
 f 
n
(
t
)]
T
is the mass of the sol-ids feed, and mass of the mixer product is
 p
(
t
) = [
 p
1
(
t
),
 p
2
(
t
),
. . .
,
 p
n
(
t
)]
T
. Matrix
(
t
) contains classi-fication coefficients for the mixer. It is usually a diagonalconstant identity matrix for all mixers of a grinding millmodel except the last mixer, which will also be a diago-nal matrix but reflect the classification effects of the millat the discharge. Here
s
is the mean residence time forsolids in a mixer, which can be obtained by appropriateanalysis of pulse injection tracer tests (see,Weller et al.,2000).Eq.(3)is the generic building block of the grindingmill models for this dynamic simulation approach. Inpractice, we also need to include a water phase mass bal-ance in the above mill model if a wet grinding circuit isto be simulated. The water phase model will not be dis-cussed in this paper.Other key unit operations in grinding circuits aremixing and separation devices. A dynamical mathemat-ical model of a sump unit operation can be derived inthe similar fashion to Eq.(3), based on simple mixingprinciples with an associated mean residence time. Thereare many types of models for cyclone separators in theliterature, which will not be discussed in this paper.The hydro-cyclone model we used in this study is basedon an empirical model (Austin et al., 1984). Neither of these models will be described in any detail in this paper.
3. General features and the specifics of comminutionmodels
As can be seen from the last section, dynamical math-ematical models of grinding mills can quickly grow intosome very complex, nonlinear and highly inter-con-nected differential equations. The complexity of thewhole grinding circuit will dramatically increase oncewe start to connect different unit models into a grindingcircuit and when wet grinding is considered. Any closed-loop control (even with simple PID control) will com-plicate the models further. It is clear that a powerfulnonlinear differential equation solver is a must for anydynamic simulation of such complex models. In addi-tion, a modular and subsystem approach is highly desir-able to manage the complexity of the unit models andalso, the simulation tool has to be sufficiently flexibleto allow users to simulate a wide variety of types of grinding circuits with different connectivity. In orderto fully understand the true dynamical behaviour of individual unit models and the linked flowsheet, it is alsonecessary to have real time graphical display capacity inthe simulation tool.After a review of many commercially available dy-namic simulation packages on the market,SIMULINK(www.mathworks.com) was chosen for this work due toits strong dynamical modelling capability and flexibility.
3.1. General features of SIMULINK 
SIMULINK is a general purpose, very powerful andflexible dynamic system simulation environment. It hasbeen applied to various time-domain dynamic systemsimulations in a wide variety of industries, such as aero-space (e.g. F14 flight control, missile flight control, lunarmodule autopilot, and radar tracking), and automotive(e.g. engine timing control, anti-lock brake system, auto-matic transmission control, active suspension, power
Y. Liu, S. Spencer / Minerals Engineering 17 (2004) 1189–1198
1191

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
donde puedo adquirir estas librerias
1 hundred reads
adprostg liked this
anatoli_guriev liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->