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Lung Worm in Himachal Pradesh

Lung Worm in Himachal Pradesh

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indian
.}ollmai
alAnimal
Sciences
69 (4) : 207-210. April 1999
Outbreaks
of
verminous bronchopulmonitis
among
sheep and goats in Himachal Pradesh
R K
ASRANI'.
M K
BATTN.
R C
KATOCH\
K P .lITHENDRAW, MAN DEEP
SHARMA',
S P
SINGH"and
V K
GUPTN
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 1
76
062
Received:
13
February 1998;
Accepted:
22 September 1998
ABSTRACT
The
detailed investigations on 5 outbreaks
of
verminous bronchopulmonitis
in
peak winter among migratory (Jaddisheep and goats
in
Himachal Pradesh were described.
The
clinical symptoms,
gmss
lesions and histopathological alteratioll$were studied.
The
concurrent ailments due
to
nematodes i
c.
Dictyocalllusjilaria
and
Protostrongylus rujescpns
and bacteriasuch as
E.
coli, COITnebacteriulIl
spp.,
Pasteurella huemolytica,
P.
mllitodela
and
Streptococcus
pyogenes
were diagnosed.The serological cvidence
of
peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was confirmed in 20 animals manifesting stomatitis andglossitis,Key
words:
Bacteria. Bronchopulmonitis, Goats, Nematodes, Sheep
Helminthic infestations
and
microbial infections are
themajor
impediments to livestock
development
in
HimachalPradesh. Lung worms infestations have earlier been recognized
among
migratory llocks
in
hilly regions
ofh~dia
(Krishna
et
at.
1987,
Sharma
et at.
1988,
Sharma
1994).The
present
communication records etioparllological observations
manifested in deadly outbreaks
of
bronc hop
ulman
t is
affecting5 llocks
of
sheep
and goats
in
Sirmour
district
of
HimachalPradesh.MATERIALS
AND
METHODSThe
outbreaks
and mortality were noticed
in
December,1996
among
migratory flocks
of
sheep
and
goats stationed
at
foothills
ofSirmour
district
in
a radius
of
10-I 5 km. The
data
from each affected flock was collected on flock population,morbidity, mortality and case fatality percentage (Table I).These affected flocks were critically
examined
clinically and
14
animals
(7
sheep
and 7 goats) including
young
and adults
from
different
flockswere
subjected
to
postmortem
examination.
The
specimens
of
lungs exhibiting gross lesions
werecollected
in
10%
formal saline
for
histopatho
morphological investigations.
The
nematode infestations werenoticed
in
trachea as well as bronchi
of
all
the
necropsied
animals and were
washed
thoroughly
in normal saline
and
fixed
in
70%
alcohol for taxonomic identitication.
Present address:
17
Assistant
Professor,
DcpartmGnt
of
Veterinary Pathology,2Assistant
Professor,;
Associate
Profess()
r.
'Professor
andHead,
Department
of
Veterinary
Microbiology Collcge
of
Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
'Scientist.
IVRI Palampur. Himachall'raLlesh."Head. fkparllllent ofVet!lrinary Pathology.
The
pieces
of
lungs
were
also
collected
aseptically formicrobiological examination. These
were
processed on
6%
Fig.
1.
Posterior
end
or
Illale
Protostrongylus
rujesce/l.l'
I'rom
shecp ( I 00
~).
 
208
ASRANI
ETAL
[Vol. 69, NO.4
Table I. Flocks
of
migratory sheep and goats showing con,:urrent lung worm and microbial infestations
_
.
-._-----.-----_.--
FlockFlockPlockMortalityCase fatality AnimalSpecies SecondaryNo.populationmOl'bility
(%)
(%)
_._--------
--------
L
Sheep (160)40.0011.25
12
Goats (110)36.36 10.90 302.Sheep (250)54.40 12.4024.60Goats (150)
31.33
10.00 31.91
3.
Sheep (200)
46.00
5.00 10.86Goats (98)37.757.14 18.914.Sheep
(J
58) 68.998.86 12.84Goats (194)35.57 4.6313.865.Sheep (436) 54.35 9.1716.87Goats (75) 41.334.00
9.65
_----
TotalSheep (
12(4)
52.16 9.38 17.99Goats (627) 35.737.49 20.53
sheep-blood agar and the isolates
were
identified on the basis
of
heir cultural, morphological
and
physiological behaviour.The sel'llm samples were also collected and tested for presence
of
antibodies for
Chlamydia psittaci
and peste des petitsruminants (PPR),
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
Clinical signs
The clinical findings were more or less similar
in
all theseflocks exam ined. The affected animals had mucopurulent nasal
discharge,
bouts
of
coughing, moist rales
and
chronic
diarrhoea. A rise
of
body temperature
(103°-,1
04°F),
capriciousappetite, general
thri11:iness,
progressive emaciation and body
weight
loss
were
otherassociated
symptoms. These
observations were
in
line with those
of
Krishna
et af.
(1987)
and Manfield
et al.
(1993). Both
young
and adult animals
were
affected.
Mucopurulent
nasal
discharge
was
more
pronounced
in
2
of
the 3 day-old kids
in
one flock. The oralsymptoms, viz. necrotic stomatitis and glossitis were alsoobserved
in
few animals
in2
flocks. A low persistent mortality(2-3 animalslf1ock/day) occurred more [han one month as
per
anamnesis. A few abortions were also rep0l1ed from 2 flocks.The antibiotic treatment proved ineftective and the mortalitycontinued as and when antibiotic
cover
was withdrawn.
Gross lesions
The trachea and bronchi
of
all necropsied animals werecongested and full
of
mucopurulent and frothy exudate alongwith abundant lung worms. Two different types
ofnematodes
were noticed from tracheal and bronchial lavage. These were
identified
as
Dictyocaulus
filaria
in 6
animals, and
rrotostrongylus
rujescf::l1s
in
5 animals (Fig.
I )
and mixed
necropsied
oflungworm
complications
D
D,P
Corynebacterium
spp.
(I)
3
D,P
E.
coli
(I)
P.
multicida
(I
)
Streptococcus pyotenes
(2)
D,P
Streptococcus pyogenes
(I)
P.
haemo/ylica
(
I )
2
D,P
D
Pesle des ruminantsStreptococcus pyogenes
(I)
3
D
PPR
E.culi
(I),
Corynebacterium
spp.
(I)
2P
77
infections
of
both
in
3 animals. The pleura appeared thick andcloudy.
In
3 animals pleural adhesions with thoracic cavityand diaphragmatic wall were also evident and are
in
conformitywith observations
of
Vale co
et
al.
(1992). The lung parenchymahad focal and diffuse cream ish white patches
of
consolidation.A mild pericarditis, hydrothorax and hydropericardium wereother accompanied consistent observations. A
mile!
catarrhalenteritis was also recorded.
No
gross lesions were perceivable
in
other visceral organs. Dhar and Dash (1982) reported theprevalence
of
lung worm infestations
in
sheep
in
the Kulluvalley. The animals showed either
D.
filaria
infestations
ormixedinfestations
of
Protostrongylus
spp.
and
Varre
strongylus
spp.
or
of
D.
filaria
in
association with the other2 species.
Histopathological changes
The microscopicchanges were
typical
of
bronchop
neumonia. The pleura was thickened due to accumulation
of
fibrinous exudate and leukocytes chiefly the neutrophils. Atsome places parasitic larvae were also seen
in
the thickenedpleural layer (Fig.2).
The
changes were more pronounced
in
the pneumo parenchyma involving both alveoli and bronchioles. The lumens
of
alveoli had both larvae and parasitic ovaalongwith
abundant
of
neutrophils (Fig.3).
Two
types
of
parasitic eggs were clearly identified
in
the alveoli. At certain
places
interalveolarseptatewere
also thickened
due
to
leukocytic infiltration
(neutrophils
and eosinophils) andproliferation
of
alveolar lining cells. The patches
of
congestion
and
haemorrhages
were
almost present
in
the
lung
parenchyma. At
some
places alveoli
appeared
emphysematous.
The
bronchioles contained
aggregates
ofneutrophils,
parasitic
ova
and
larvae
in
their
lumen. Afew
cross
sections
of
parasites
werealso
seen
in
the
 
April 1999]
VERMINOUS BRONCHOPULMONITIS AMONG SHEEP AND GOAT
209
I'igs
2-),2,1'lw[llillicrograph ()rillng
showing
thickening
of
pleura
owing
to
fibrin depositioll.
lcu!.;m;Yks
<Jnd
parasilic
h'il
,,,:
I
II
;lllei
I
33).
3,Photomicrograph showing neutrophils, parasitic ova and larvae
in
the lumen
of
alveoli (
I-I
and
E
x
33),
4,Photomicrograph showing lungworms
in
the bronchiole
(1-1
and
E
x
33),5,Photomicrograph showing neutrophils
in
the
lumen
of
broil
chi
ole (
1-1
and E
.x
132),
lumen
of
bronchioles at
few
places(FigA).
The
bronchiolar epithelium appeared hyperplastic alongwith
a
moderate increase
in
the
goblet
cells,There
wasextensiveepithelial
cell
debris alongwith
inflammatory
cells
in
thelumen
of
bronchioles
(Fig.
5).
The
histopathological
changes
in
bronchiwere more or
less
similar
to
those
observed
in
bronchioles.
The
bronchial
epithelial
hyperplasia, neutrophil aggregations
and
crosssections
of
parasites
were
seen
in
the lumen
of
bronchi.
These pathological
changes
are in
agreement
with Krishna
et
al.
(1987)
and Valeco
et
at.
(1992).Microbiological examination
The lung pieces from affected animals invariably
led to
the
bacterial isolation (Table
1)
and were identified as
Escherichiacoli
(2),
Corynebacterium
spp. (2),
Pasteurella haemo(ytica
(I),
Pasteurella multocida
(1)
and
Streptococcus pyogenes
(4).
The isolation
of
these pathogenic bacteria from verm inous
lungsindicates
secondary complications
due
to
these
organisms. These findings are in line
with
those
of
Krishna
et
al.
(1987). Serum samples (20) collected from 3 flocksshowing lesions
of
stomatitis and glossitis were confirmedfor
peste des petits ruminants
(PPR) by Pirbright Laboratory,UK.
It
is, however, not clear whether these animals had recentexposure to the virus
or some
previolls exposure since thetitres were not available. However, the lung lesions typical
of
PPR
were
not
observed
on
gross
and
histopathological
examination. The overall percentage
of
morbidity
in
sheepand goats
in
5 flocks
was
52,16 and 35.73 while mortality
percentage
was
9,38
and
7.49 among
sheep
and
goats
respectively, The
case
fatality rate
had
reverse
trend ie17.99
%
and 20.53
%
in
sheep and goats respectively.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors thank the Dean, College
ofVet~rinary
and AnimalSciences, HPKY, Palampur, for providing necessary tllCilities.
REFERENCES
Dhar 0 N
and
Dash P K ,1982.
Lung
worms
and strangulate nematode
infections
in
sheep
in
the Kullu
valicy
(Himachal
Pradesh).lrldia(j
Journal
of
A nimal Sciences
43
(
I):
53-55.Krishna Lal, Gupta V K and Katoch R C .1987, Studics
on
theoutbreaks
of
verminous pncumonia
in
Gaddi sheep and goats
in
Himachal Pradesh,
Indian Journal a/Comparative
,"'licrobiolo.[",'V.
Immunology
and
infectious Diseases
8 (4) :
170
.
72,

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