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PUSHOVER

PUSHOVER

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Published by Mehedi Bin Sharif
ETABS
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Published by: Mehedi Bin Sharif on Nov 07, 2012
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Effect of Lateral Load Patterns in Pushover Analysis
Abhilash R. Biju V. Rahul LeslieM.Tech Student Lecturer Asst. Director College of Engineering College of Engineering DRIQ BoardThiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Kerala PWD priyadarsini4u@gmail.com biju_vasudevan@yahoo.com Thiruvananthapuramrahul.leslie@gmail.com
 Abstract
-
 
Pushover analysis is a static, nonlinear procedure inwhich the magnitude of the structural loading is incrementallyincreased in accordance with a certain predefined pattern. Withthe increase in the magnitude of the loading, weak links andfailure modes of the structure are found. Static pushover analysisis an attempt by the structural engineering profession to evaluatethe real strength of the structure and it promises to be a usefuland effective tool for performance based design. The performancepoint of the structure depends on the lateral load pattern appliedon the structure. Commonly applied load patterns are invertedtriangle and uniformly distributed. Then guidelines like FEMA-257 & 356 provide guidelines for lateral loads and doing pushoveranalysis. Here pushover analysis is done a typical RCC structureby applying different lateral load patterns using ETABS andSAP2000. The lateral load patterns used here are uniform loaddistribution and equivalent lateral force distribution as perFEMA-257, lateral loads from response spectrum analysis as perIS-1893(2002) and the lateral load pattern as per Upper-BoundPushover analysis method.
Keywords: Earthquake Engineering, Performance based design,nonlinear static analysis, Pushover analysis, Structural dynamics.
I. I
 NTRODUCTION
Analysis methods are broadly classified as linear static, linear dynamic, nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamicanalysis. In these the first two is suitable only when thestructural loads are small and at no point the load will reach tocollapse load. During earthquake loads the structural loadingwill reach to collapse load and the material stresses will beabove yield stresses. So in this case material nonlinearity andgeometrical nonlinearity should be incorporated into theanalysis to get better results. Non Linear Static analysis or Push-over analysis is atechnique by which a computer model of the building issubjected to a lateral load of a certain shape (i.e., parabolic,triangular or uniform). The intensity of the lateral load isslowly increased and the sequence of cracks, yielding, plastichinge formations, and failure of various structural componentsis recorded. In the structural design process a series of iterations are usually required during which, the structuraldeficiencies observed in iteration is rectified and followed byanother. This iterative analysis and design procedure continuesuntil the design satisfies pre-established performance criteria.The performance criteria for pushover analysis are generallyestablished as the desired state of the building, given roof- topdisplacement amplitude. The non-linear static analysis is thenrevisited to determine member forces and deformations attarget displacement or performance point. This analysis provides data on the strength and ductility of the structurewhich otherwise cannot be predicted. Base shear 
versus
topdisplacement curve of the structure, called pushover curves, areessential outcomes of pushover analysis. These curves areuseful in ascertaining whether a structure is capable of sustaining certain level of seismic load.This method is considered as a step forward from theuse of linear analysis, because they are based on a moreaccurate estimate of the distributed yielding within a structure,rather than an assumed, uniform ductility. The generation of the pushover curve also provides the nonlinear behaviour of thestructure under lateral load. However, it is important toremember that pushover methods have no rigorous theoretical basis, and may be inaccurate if the assumed load distribution isincorrect. For example, the use of a load pattern based on thefundamental mode shape may be inaccurate if higher modesare significant, and the use of any fixed load pattern may beunrealistic if yielding is not uniformly distributed, so that thestiffness profile changes as the structure yields. Here lateralload pattern recommended by FEMA-273, Upper bound pushover analysis and the lateral load obtained by dynamicanalysis based on response spectra in IS-1893(2002) are used.Pushover analysis is done on a regular single bay four storied RCC structure using SAP2000 and ETABS. Four load patterns are applied and the variations in performance point arechecked.II. PERFORMANCE LEVELSSeismic performance of a structure is described bydesignating the maximum allowable damage state for anidentified seismic hazard. ATC-40 describes standard performance levels for structural and non structural systemsand several commonly used combinations of structural andnonstructural levels
 
as
 
(a) Operational, (b) Immediateoccupancy, (c) Damage control, (d) Life safety, (e) Structuralstability and (f) Not considered
10th National Conference on Technological Trends (NCTT09) 6-7 Nov 2009College of Engineering Trivandrum138
 
The performance level of a building is determined based up on its function and importance. Structures likehospital buildings, telecommunication centers, transportationfacilities etc. are expected to have a performance level of operational or immediate occupancy for an identified seismichazard that can occur for the structure. Meanwhile a residential building must have a performance level of damage control or life safety. Temporary structures or unimportant buildings or structures came under the performance level of structuralstability or sometimes are not considered. The forcedeformation relationship as well as the performance levels of astructure as well as a structural element is given in fig 1.
Fig.1. F
orce-
D
eformation relationship of a typical
 p
lastic
h
inge
(FEMA 356)
 III.
 
D
ETAILS OF THE
S
TRUCTURE.
Structure used for analysis is a four storied RCCstructure with single bay 5m x 5m dimension. The structure isthe part of an existing structure. Height of the storey is 4m. Thesection details are given in table1 and 3.The structure is first modeled in ETABS and thedynamic properties of the structure is calculated and based onthat the different lateral loads are calculated and the structure isthen modeled in SAP2000 and is then analyzed by applying thedifferent lateral loads.
Fig 2.
 
G
eneral
L
ayout of 
oof 
B
eams
& Columns
.
Fig 3. G
eneral
L
ayout of 
F
loor 
B
eams
& C
olumns
Fig 4
.
A
nalysis
M
odel (ETABS).
T
ABLE 1.
S
tructural
B
eams
D
etails.
 NameDepth(mm)Width(mm)Ast(mm
2
) Asc(mm
2
)BF204 1000 230 653.43 473.8544BF205 1000 230 1031.49 1053.185BF223 1000 230 1232.45 1053.185BF225 1000 230 1031.49 786.256BR6 1000 230 992.24 786.256BR7 600 230 603.186 402.124BR20 1000 230 1031.49 786.256BR21 1000 230 678.54 786.256T
ABLE 2.
D
ynamic
P
roperties of the
S
tructure
.
ModeModal Properties1 2Period (sec)
0.297076 0.262477
Participation factor 
229.906679 150.62003
Modal mass factor 
55.936 24.0079
roof 1 -13
rd
floor 
0.8049 0.1
2
nd
floor 
0.5122 0.8333
Mode ShapeAmplitude1
st
floor 
0.2195 0.6333
College of Engineering Trivandrum139
 
 
Mode Shape
-1.5-1-0.500.511.51 2 3 4
Storey
   M  o   d  a   l   D   i  s  p   l  a  e  c  m  e  n   t  s
Mode 1Mode2
 
Fig 5
.
 N
ormalized
M
ode
S
hape of the
S
tructure.
T
ABLE 3.
S
tructural
C
olumn
D
etails.
 NamePositionDepth(mm)Width(mm)Reinforcement detailsStirrupdetailsCL15,CL19 Groundto 2
nd
 floor 900 400 12# - 28mm 10mmat100mmc/cCL15,CL19 3
rd
 floor 700 400 4# - 25mm6# - 20mm10mmat100mmc/cCL15,CL19 4
th
 floor 700 300 8# - 20mm 10mmat100mmc/cCL16,CL20 Groundto 2
nd
 floor 900 350 12# - 25mm 10mmat100mmc/cCL16,CL20 3
rd
&4
th
 floor 900 350 10# -20mm
IV.
 
L
OAD
P
ATTERNS
To perform a pushover analysis a load pattern whichis equivalent to the earthquake load is required. This load isapplied laterally to the structure by increment. There areseveral guidelines and methods available to perform pushover analysis; in these different types of lateral load patterns are alsorecommended. Here load patterns recommended in FEMA-256, loads obtained from dynamic analysis as per IS-1893(2002) and load as per Upper Bound Pushover analysisare take.
 A. Fema-273 Lateral Load Distribution.
The FEMA-273 document (Building Seismic SafetyCouncil; 1997) recommends pushover analysis procedures byapplying a lateral load pattern which is a uniform distributionover height but gradually increasing values until a target roof displacement is obtained.Specified in FEMA-273 are three lateral loaddistributions:1.
 
Uniform distribution.2.
 
Equivalent Lateral force distribution.3.
 
SRSS distribution.Of these the first two load patterns are taken for the analysis.Details of the load distribution are given in the tables. Theuniform distribution can be calculated by the equationF
i
= m
i
/
m
 j
 Were m
i
is the storey massAnd the equivalent lateral force can be calculated asF
i
= (m
i
h
i
)/(
(m
 j
h
 j
).where k = 1.0 T
0.5s= 2.0 2.5
T
T
ABLE 4.
U
niform distribution as per 
FEMA-273
 
Storey Mass (kN)Lateral forcedistribution1
st
floor 17263.69 0.1832
nd
floor 24530.530.2603
rd
floor 25942.840.2754
th
floor 26758.620.283T
ABLE 5.
E
quivalent
L
ateral
F
orce distribution as per 
FEMA-273
 
Storey Mass (kN) Height (m)Lateral forcedistribution1
st
floor 17263.69 4 0.06872
nd
floor 24530.53 80.19533
rd
floor 25942.84 120.30984
th
floor 26758.62 160.4261
 B. IS-1893(2002) Response Spectrum Load 
For the linear static analysis of structuresIS-1893(2002) recommends two methods; the seismic coefficientmethod and the response spectrum method. Here the responsespectrum analysis of the structure is done and the lateral loaddistribution on the structure is obtained. This load is applied asa lateral load pattern in pushover analysis.
T
ABLE 6.
L
ateral
L
oad
D
istribution as per 
IS-1893(2002)
 
Storey Lateral force distribution (N)4
th
floor 16227.663
rd
floor 13088.252
nd
floor 6101.951
st
floor 1459.16
C. Upper Bound Pushover Lateral Load Distribution
.The upper-bound pushover analysis (UBPA) proposed by Jan et al. is based on utilizing a singe load vector obtainedas the combination of the first mode shape and a factoredsecond mode shape. The spectral displacements (Dn)corresponding to elastic first and second mode periods areestimated from the elastic spectrum of the considered groundmotion and the upper-bound contribution of the second mode isestablished using modal participation factors (
Г
n).(q
2
/q
1
) = |(
Г
2
D
2
)/(
Г
1
D
1
)|.The invariant load vector (F) is then computed as thecombination of first and second mode shapes:
College of Engineering Trivandrum140

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