-1.5-1-0.500.511.51 2 3 4
M o d a l D i s p l a e c m e n t s
hape of the
NamePositionDepth(mm)Width(mm)Reinforcement detailsStirrupdetailsCL15,CL19 Groundto 2
floor 900 400 12# - 28mm 10mmat100mmc/cCL15,CL19 3
floor 700 400 4# - 25mm6# - 20mm10mmat100mmc/cCL15,CL19 4
floor 700 300 8# - 20mm 10mmat100mmc/cCL16,CL20 Groundto 2
floor 900 350 12# - 25mm 10mmat100mmc/cCL16,CL20 3
floor 900 350 10# -20mm
To perform a pushover analysis a load pattern whichis equivalent to the earthquake load is required. This load isapplied laterally to the structure by increment. There areseveral guidelines and methods available to perform pushover analysis; in these different types of lateral load patterns are alsorecommended. Here load patterns recommended in FEMA-256, loads obtained from dynamic analysis as per IS-1893(2002) and load as per Upper Bound Pushover analysisare take.
A. Fema-273 Lateral Load Distribution.
The FEMA-273 document (Building Seismic SafetyCouncil; 1997) recommends pushover analysis procedures byapplying a lateral load pattern which is a uniform distributionover height but gradually increasing values until a target roof displacement is obtained.Specified in FEMA-273 are three lateral loaddistributions:1.
Equivalent Lateral force distribution.3.
SRSS distribution.Of these the first two load patterns are taken for the analysis.Details of the load distribution are given in the tables. Theuniform distribution can be calculated by the equationF
is the storey massAnd the equivalent lateral force can be calculated asF
).where k = 1.0 T
0.5s= 2.0 2.5
niform distribution as per
Storey Mass (kN)Lateral forcedistribution1
floor 17263.69 0.1832
orce distribution as per
Storey Mass (kN) Height (m)Lateral forcedistribution1
floor 17263.69 4 0.06872
floor 24530.53 80.19533
floor 25942.84 120.30984
floor 26758.62 160.4261
B. IS-1893(2002) Response Spectrum Load
For the linear static analysis of structuresIS-1893(2002) recommends two methods; the seismic coefficientmethod and the response spectrum method. Here the responsespectrum analysis of the structure is done and the lateral loaddistribution on the structure is obtained. This load is applied asa lateral load pattern in pushover analysis.
istribution as per
Storey Lateral force distribution (N)4
C. Upper Bound Pushover Lateral Load Distribution
.The upper-bound pushover analysis (UBPA) proposed by Jan et al. is based on utilizing a singe load vector obtainedas the combination of the first mode shape and a factoredsecond mode shape. The spectral displacements (Dn)corresponding to elastic first and second mode periods areestimated from the elastic spectrum of the considered groundmotion and the upper-bound contribution of the second mode isestablished using modal participation factors (
) = |(
)|.The invariant load vector (F) is then computed as thecombination of first and second mode shapes:
College of Engineering Trivandrum140