FROF. AMIT KUMAR MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT
). But thismeasurement is not exact, but only precise to twosignificant digits.2.
The Earth's gravitational field varies slightly dependingon height above sea level and other factors.3.
The computation of .45 seconds involved extracting asquare root,amathematical operationthat required
rounding off to some number of significant digits, inthis case two significant digits.So far, we have only considered scientific sources of error. Inactual practice, dropping an object from a height of a metre stick and using astopwatchto time its fall, we have other sources of error:1.
Most common, is simple carelessness.2.
Determining the exact time at which the object isreleased and the exact time it hits the ground. There isalso the problem that the measurement of the heightand the measurement of the time both involve someerror.3.
Sources of Error in Measurement
Measurement should be precise and unambiguous in an idealresearch study. This objective, however, is often not met with inentirety. As such the researcher must be aware about the sourcesof error in measurement. The following are the possible sourcesof error in measurement.
At times the respondent may be reluctant toexpress strong negative feelings or it is just possible that hemay have very little knowledge but may not admit hisignorance. All this reluctance is likely to result in an interviewof ‘guesses.’ Transient factors like fatigue, boredom, anxiety,etc. may limit the ability of the respondent to respondaccurately and fully.
Situational factors may also come in the way of correct measurement. Any condition which places a strain oninterview can have serious effects on the interviewer-respondent rapport. For instance, if someone else is present, hecan distort responses by joining in or merely by being present.If the respondent feels that anonymity is not assured, he maybe reluctant to express certain feelings.
The interviewer can distort responses byrewording or reordering questions. His behaviour, style andlooks may encourage or discourage certain replies fromrespondents. Careless mechanical processing may distort thefindings. Errors may also creep in because of incorrect coding,faulty tabulation and/or statistical calculations, particularly inthe data-analysis stage.
Error may arise because of the defectivemeasuring instrument. The use of complex words, beyond thecomprehension of the respondent, ambiguous meanings, poorprinting, inadequate space for replies, response choiceomissions, etc. are a few things that make the measuringinstrument defective and may result in measurement errors.Another type of instrument deficiency is the poor sampling of the universe of items of concern.Researcher must know that correct measurement depends onsuccessfully meeting all of the problems listed above. He must,to the extent possible, try to eliminate, neutralize or otherwisedeal with all the possible sources of error so that the finalresults may not be contaminated.
Types of Scales
This is a very simple scale. It consists of assignment of facts/choices to various alternative categories which are usuallyexhaustive as well mutually exclusive. These scales are justnumerical and are the least restrictive of all the scales. Instancesof Nominal Scale are - credit card numbers, bank accountnumbers, employee id numbers etc. It is simple and widely usedwhen relationship between two variables is to be studied. In aNominal Scale numbers are no more than labels and are usedspecifically to identify different categories of responses.Following example illustrates -What is your gender?
FemaleAnother example is - a survey of retail stores done on twodimensions - way of maintaining stocks and daily turnover.How do you stock items at present?
By product category
At a centralized store
Single warehouseDaily turnover of consumer is?
Between 100 – 200
Between 200 – 300
Above 300A two way classification can be made as followsDaily/Stock TurnoverMethodProductCategoryDepartmentwiseCentralizedStoreSingleWarehouse100 – 200200 – 300Above 300Mode is frequently used for response category.
Ordinal scales are the simplest attitude measuring scale used inMarketing Research.It is more powerful than a nominal scale inthat the numbers possess the property of rank order. The ranking