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Measurement & Scaling MBA MK02 UNIT III

Measurement & Scaling MBA MK02 UNIT III

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Published by Amit Kumar

Measurement and Scaling: Types of Scales, Difficulty of Measurement, Sources of Error, Criteria for a Good Scale, Development of Marketing Measures. Attitude Scales: The Concept of Attitude, Component of Attitude, General Procedure in Attitude Scaling, Selected Attitude Scales, Rating Methods, Limitations of Attitude Measurement. Sampling: What is Sampling, Objective of Sampling, Steps in Sample Design, Various Techniques of Sampling, Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Techniques of Sampling, Difference between Probability and Non-probability Sampling, Problem Associated with Sampling, Determining Sample Size.

Measurement and Scaling: Types of Scales, Difficulty of Measurement, Sources of Error, Criteria for a Good Scale, Development of Marketing Measures. Attitude Scales: The Concept of Attitude, Component of Attitude, General Procedure in Attitude Scaling, Selected Attitude Scales, Rating Methods, Limitations of Attitude Measurement. Sampling: What is Sampling, Objective of Sampling, Steps in Sample Design, Various Techniques of Sampling, Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Techniques of Sampling, Difference between Probability and Non-probability Sampling, Problem Associated with Sampling, Determining Sample Size.

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Published by: Amit Kumar on Nov 07, 2012
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Mail: amit.kumar@forte.ac.in
UNIT IIIMeasurementMeasurement
is the process or the result of determining theratioof aphysical quantity,such as a length, time, temperature etc., to aunit of measurement,such as the meter, second ordegree Celsius. The science of measurement is calledmetrology. 
Units and systemsUnits of measurementandSystems of measurementImperial system
These various systems of measurement have at times beencalled foot-pound-second systems after the Imperial units forlength, weight and time even though the tons, hundredweights,gallons, and nautical miles, for example, are different for theU.S. units. Many Imperial units remain in use in Britain whichhas officially partially switched to the SI system. Road signs arestill in miles, yards, miles per hour; milk, beer and cider are soldby the pint; people measure their height in feet and inches andtheir weight instoneand pounds, to give just a few examples.
Metric system
Themetric systemis a decimalsystems of measurementbased on its units for length, themetreand for mass, thekilogram.It exists in several variations, with different choices of base units, though these do not affect its day-to-day use. Since the 1960s,theInternational System of Units(SI) is the internationallyrecognized metric system. Metric units of mass, length, andelectricity are widely used around the world for both everydayand scientific purposes.The metric system features a single base unit for many physicalquantities. Other quantities are derived from the standard SIunits. Multiples and fractions of the units are expressed asPowers of 10of each unit. Unit conversions are always simplebecause they are in the ratio of ten, one hundred, one thousand,etc.,
International System of Units
TheInternational System of Units(abbreviated as SI from theFrench languagename Système International d'Unités) is themodern revision of themetric system.It is the world's mostwidely usedsystem of units,both in everydaycommerceand in science.The SI was developed in 1960 from the metre-kilogram-second(MKS) system, rather than thecentimetre- gram-second(CGS) system, which, in turn, had many variants.During its development the SI also introduced several newlynamed units that were previously not a part of the metricsystem. The original SI units for the six basic physical quantitieswere:
metre (m) :SI unit of length
second (s) :SI unit of time
kilogram (kg) :SI unit of mass
ampere(A) :SI unit of electric current
degree kelvin(K) :SI unit of thermodynamictemperature
candela(cd) :SI unit of luminous intensityThere are two types of SI units, base units and derived units.Base units are the simple measurements for time, length, mass,temperature, amount of substance, electric current and lightintensity. Derived units are constructed from the base units, forexample, thewatt,i.e. the unit for power, is defined from thebase units as m
. Other physical properties may bemeasured in compound units, such as material density,measured in kg/m
Some special names
We also use some special names for some multiples of someunits.
100 kilograms = 1 quintal; 1000 kilogram = 1 metrictonne;
10 years = 1 decade; 100 years = 1 century; 1000 years= 1 millennium
Difficulties in Measurement
Since accurate measurement is essential in many fields, andsince all measurements are necessarily approximations, a greatdeal of effort must be taken to make measurements as accurateas possible. For example, consider theproblem of measuring thetimeit takes an object to fall a distance of one metre (about39in). Using physics, it can be shown that, in the gravitationalfield of the Earth, it should take any object about 0.45 second tofall one metre. However, the following are just some of thesources of errorthat arise:
Mail: amit.kumar@forte.ac.in
This computation used for theacceleration of gravity9.8 metres per second squared (32 ft/s
). But thismeasurement is not exact, but only precise to twosignificant digits.2.
The Earth's gravitational field varies slightly dependingon height above sea level and other factors.3.
The computation of .45 seconds involved extracting asquare root,amathematical operationthat required rounding off to some number of significant digits, inthis case two significant digits.So far, we have only considered scientific sources of error. Inactual practice, dropping an object from a height of a metre stick and using astopwatchto time its fall, we have other sources of error:1.
Most common, is simple carelessness.2.
Determining the exact time at which the object isreleased and the exact time it hits the ground. There isalso the problem that the measurement of the heightand the measurement of the time both involve someerror.3.
Sources of Error in Measurement
Measurement should be precise and unambiguous in an idealresearch study. This objective, however, is often not met with inentirety. As such the researcher must be aware about the sourcesof error in measurement. The following are the possible sourcesof error in measurement.
At times the respondent may be reluctant toexpress strong negative feelings or it is just possible that hemay have very little knowledge but may not admit hisignorance. All this reluctance is likely to result in an interviewof ‘guesses.’ Transient factors like fatigue, boredom, anxiety,etc. may limit the ability of the respondent to respondaccurately and fully.
Situational factors may also come in the way of correct measurement. Any condition which places a strain oninterview can have serious effects on the interviewer-respondent rapport. For instance, if someone else is present, hecan distort responses by joining in or merely by being present.If the respondent feels that anonymity is not assured, he maybe reluctant to express certain feelings.
The interviewer can distort responses byrewording or reordering questions. His behaviour, style andlooks may encourage or discourage certain replies fromrespondents. Careless mechanical processing may distort thefindings. Errors may also creep in because of incorrect coding,faulty tabulation and/or statistical calculations, particularly inthe data-analysis stage.
Error may arise because of the defectivemeasuring instrument. The use of complex words, beyond thecomprehension of the respondent, ambiguous meanings, poorprinting, inadequate space for replies, response choiceomissions, etc. are a few things that make the measuringinstrument defective and may result in measurement errors.Another type of instrument deficiency is the poor sampling of the universe of items of concern.Researcher must know that correct measurement depends onsuccessfully meeting all of the problems listed above. He must,to the extent possible, try to eliminate, neutralize or otherwisedeal with all the possible sources of error so that the finalresults may not be contaminated.
Types of Scales
Nominal Scale
This is a very simple scale. It consists of assignment of facts/choices to various alternative categories which are usuallyexhaustive as well mutually exclusive. These scales are justnumerical and are the least restrictive of all the scales. Instancesof Nominal Scale are - credit card numbers, bank accountnumbers, employee id numbers etc. It is simple and widely usedwhen relationship between two variables is to be studied. In aNominal Scale numbers are no more than labels and are usedspecifically to identify different categories of responses.Following example illustrates -What is your gender?
[ ]
[ ]
FemaleAnother example is - a survey of retail stores done on twodimensions - way of maintaining stocks and daily turnover.How do you stock items at present?
[ ]
By product category
[ ]
At a centralized store
[ ]
Department wise
[ ]
Single warehouseDaily turnover of consumer is?
[ ]
Between 100 – 200
[ ]
Between 200 – 300
[ ]
Above 300A two way classification can be made as followsDaily/Stock TurnoverMethodProductCategoryDepartmentwiseCentralizedStoreSingleWarehouse100 – 200200 – 300Above 300Mode is frequently used for response category.
Ordinal Scale
Ordinal scales are the simplest attitude measuring scale used inMarketing Research.It is more powerful than a nominal scale inthat the numbers possess the property of rank order. The ranking
Mail: amit.kumar@forte.ac.in
of certain product attributes/benefits as deemed important by therespondents is obtained through the scale.
Example 1:
Rank the following attributes (1 - 5), ontheir importance in a microwave oven.1.
Company Name2.
DesignThe most important attribute is ranked 1 by the respondentsand the least important is ranked 5. Instead of numbers, lettersor symbols too can be used to rate in a ordinal scale. Such scalemakes no attempt to measure the degree of favourability of different rankings.
Example 2
- If there are 4 different types of fertilizers and if they are ordered on the basis of quality as Grade A, Grade B,Grade C, Grade D is again an Ordinal Scale.
Example 3
- If there are 5 different brands of Talcom Powderand if a respondent ranks them based on say, “Freshness” intoRank 1 having maximum Freshness Rank 2 the secondmaximum Freshness, and so on, an Ordinal Scale results.Median and mode are meaningful for ordinal scale.
Interval Scale
Herein the distance between the various categories unlike inNominal, or numbers unlike in Ordinal, are equal in case of Interval Scales. The Interval Scales are also termed as RatingScales. An Interval Scale has an arbitrary Zero point withfurther numbers placed at equal intervals. A very goodexample of Interval Scale is a Thermometer.
Illustration 1
- How do you rate your present refrigerator forthe following qualities.
 LessKnown1 2 3 4 5 Well Known
 Few 1 2 3 4 5 Many
 Low 1 2 3 4 5 High
 Poor 1 2 3 4 5 Good
 VeryDis-Satisfied1 2 3 4 5VerySatisfiedSuch a scale permits the researcher to say that position 5 on thescale is above position 4 and also the distance from 5 to 4 issame as distance from 4 to 3. Such a scale however does notpermit conclusion that position 4 is twice as strong as position2 because no zero position has been established. The dataobtained from the Interval Scale can be used to calculate theMean scores of each attributes over all respondents. TheStandard Deviation (a measure of dispersion) can also becalculated.
Ratio Scale
Ratio Scales are not widely used inMarketing Researchunlessa base item is made available for comparison. In the aboveexample of Interval scale, a score of 4 in one quality does notnecessarily mean that the respondent is twice more satisfiedthan the respondent who marks 2 on the scale. A Ratio scalehas a natural zero point and further numbers are placed atequally appearing intervals. For example scales for measuringphysical quantities like - length, weight, etc.The ratio scales are very common in physical scenarios.Quantified responses forming a ratio scale analytically are themost versatile. Rati scale possess all he characteristics of aninternal scale, and the ratios of the numbers on these scaleshave meaningful interpretations. Data on certain demographicor descriptive attributes, if they are obtained through open-ended questions, will have ratio-scale properties. Consider thefollowing questions :Q 1) What is your annual income before taxes? ______ $Q 2) How far is the Theater from your home ? ______ milesAnswers to these questions have a natural, unambiguousstarting point, namely zero. Since starting point is not chosenarbitrarily, computing and interpreting ratio makes sense. Forexample we can say that a respondent with an annual incomeof $ 40,000 earns twice as much as one with an annual incomeof $ 20,000.
Important Scaling Techniques
Graphic Rating Scale
The respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at theappropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of thecriterion variable to another. Example0(poorquality)1(badquality)5(neithergoodnorbad)7(goodquality)

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