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Genetics Vocabulary List.

Genetics Vocabulary List.

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Published by Faruk Imamovic
Genetics Vocabulary List.
Genetics Vocabulary List.

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Published by: Faruk Imamovic on Nov 07, 2012
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Genetics Vocabulary ListBasal Factors/General Transcription Factors (GTFs)- Pre-Initiation complex proteins (including RNAPolymerase II). Assemble at the TATA box and facilitate the positioning of RNA Polymerase IITFIIX- Transcription Factor (X stands for A-H) for RNA Polymerase IITBP (TATA binding protein)- Part of TFIID. Only subunit that directly binds to DNA, the rest of the GTFsbind through protein to protein interactionsTFIIF- Forms a complex with RNA polymerase II and facilitates DNA unwinding w/out ATP. Done throughtopological energy in DNA supercoiling.TFIIE- Recruits TFIIH to the nascent pre-initiation complexTFIIH- Provides helicase activity for unwinding DNA (requires ATP). Phosphorylates the carboxy terminaldomain of RNA polymerase II to initiate transcription. Provides binding sites for proteins that areimportant for splicing, DNA repair, and addition of poly-a tail.TAFs (TATA Binding Associated Factors)- Bind sequence specific transactivators.RNA Polymerase I- Catalyzes the synthesis of the precursor RNA for 18s and 28s RrnaRNA Polymerase II- Catalyzes mRNA synthesis. Consists of 9-10 subunits and carboxy terminal domain.RNA Polymerase III- Catalyzes the synthesis of tRNA and 5s rRNATranscriptome- Total collection of cytoplasmic mRNA molecules in the cell.Genomics- Study of entire genome at one timeEpigenetics- Transfer of genetic information from parent to daughtermRNA-
Fully processed messenger RNA with 5’ cap, introns removed by RNA splicing, and poly (A) tail.
 pre-mRNA- An mRNA precursor containing introns and not cleaved at the poly (A) sitehnRNA- Heterogenous nuclear RNAs. These include pre-mRNAs and RNA processing intermediatescontaining one or more introns.snRNA (Small nuclear RNAs)- Five small nuclear RNAs that function in the removal of introns from pre-mRNAs. Locate invariant RNA sequence in pre-mRNA and mediate splicing.pre-tRNA-
A tRNA precursor containing additional transcribed bases at the 5’ and 3’ ends compared to
the mature tRNA. Some pre-tRNAs also contain an intron in the anti-codon loop.
pre-rRNA- The precursor to mature 18s, 5.8s, and 28s rRNAs. The mature rRNAs are processed from thislong pre-cursor RNA molecule by cleavage, removal of bases from the end of the cleaved products, andmodifications of specific bases.snRNPs- Small ribonucleotide particles/proteins. Composed of snRNAs and protein complex.snRNAs- Guide RNAs for splicingsnoRNA- small nucleolar RNAs. Guide RNAs for modifying rRNA in nucleolus (ie: post transcriptional basemodifications like methylation) and position snoRNPs. These base-pair with complementary regions of the pre-RNA molecule directing cleavage of the RNA chain and modification of bases during maturationof the srRNAs.siRNA- Short interfering RNAs (approx. 22 bases long) that
have been “chewed up” from long double
stranded RNA. They are perfectly complementary to a sequence in an mRNA. Together, with associatedproteins, siRNAs cause cleavage of the target RNA, leading to its rapid degradation. Produced from viralgenomes and pseudogenes.miRNA- Micro RNAs (approx. 22 bases long) that base pair with mRNAs to inhibit translation of thetarget mRNA. Can Watson-crick base pairing with some mismatching so one miRNA can regulatemultiple mRNAs. Fits into arognaute complex.Polyadenylation Complex- Factors that recognize and interact with specific sequences and add poly(A)tail. Consists of CPSF, G/U nucleotides, PAP, PABPII.CPSF (Cleavage and polyadenylation specific factors)- bind to phosphorylated binding protein on carboxyter
minal domain of RNA polymerase II. Able to “jump” from CTD to specific sequence in newly
synthesized mRNA and stimulates the poly (A) tail addition.G/U nucelotides- stabilize factors in polyadenylation complex.PAP (Polyadenylation Polymerase)- Recruited and binds to polyadenylation complex. Adds a couplehundred nucleotides and is template independent. Cleavage occurs after PAP bindingPABPII- uses ATP to coat Poly(A) tail. It has RRM binding domain.Dicer- produces small double stranded siRNAsArgonaute- Series of complexes (RISC and RITS)RISC (RNA Interfering Silencing Complex)- Uses siRNA to strip away one RNA strand of dsRNA appliesguide strand (remaining strand) to mRNA still being produced making it double stranded and RNA andsiRNA are cleaved and degraded.RITS (RNA-Interfering Transcriptional Silencing)- complex strips away 1 RNA strand from dsRNA. siRNAWatson-crick base pairs with mRNA and recruits proteins that cause gene repression.
RNAsen (Drocha)- removes poly(A) tail and cap of miRNAPassenger Strand- strand of dsRNA that is degraded by argonauteGuide Strand- remaining strand from argonaute complex. Will bind with mRNA.pri-miRNA- miRNA before removal of cap and poly(A)tailpre-miRNA- miRNA without poly(A) tail and cap but with hairpin loop.RNAi (RNA Interference)- process, not a product, that defends against long double stranded RNAs. This isvirus and pseudo gene specific since somatic cells do not have dsRNA.piRNA- RNAs control movement of transposons in the genome so they do not interrupt genes orregulatory regions. Found exclusively in germ or stem cells. Can be involved in transposon degradationand transcriptional silencing.Piwi Proteins- Bind to short sections of piRNA and facilitate Watson-crick base pairing of the piRNA withtransposon. Mediate the cleavage of RNA and destroy transposons.endo siRNAs (pseudogenes)- Arise from cDNA from reverse transcription and have reintegrated intogenome. Exsist in sense and antisense forms that can come together to form dsRNA. This leads to dicingand argonaute complex processing.exo siRNAs- Made as 20 nucleotide dsRNA product introduced to cell and picked up by RISC complex.Transient impact, only impacts the cell for the period that siRNA is in the cell.exo shRNAi- Generate siRNA from DNA vector introduced to cell that intergrate into genome and codesfor an RNA with inverted repeats. This RNA forms hair pin loops or dsRNA. This is permanent, lasts formultiple generations since it is integrated into the genome.mRNP- mRNA coded and bunched up with proteinsCap Binding Complex (CBC)- Protein that recognizes 7-methyl guanine cap on mRNA and allows it to gothrough nucleoporin.EIF4protiens- Initiation factors for protein synthesis that recognize and replace mRNA cap bindingcomplex and interact with ribosome.SR proteins- Serine-Arginine proteins that aid in splicing and alternative splicing.Exon-junction complex (EJC)- Exon splice site on mRNP where proteins are recruited by SR proteins andinteract with nucleoporin.FG-nucleoporins- Form web in nucleopore. Globular domains are embedded in pore wall and
helicaldomain that partially blocks nucleoporin and provides selectivity.Transgenic Mouse- Mouse that has received exogenous DNA at the level of oocyte.

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