pre-rRNA- The precursor to mature 18s, 5.8s, and 28s rRNAs. The mature rRNAs are processed from thislong pre-cursor RNA molecule by cleavage, removal of bases from the end of the cleaved products, andmodifications of specific bases.snRNPs- Small ribonucleotide particles/proteins. Composed of snRNAs and protein complex.snRNAs- Guide RNAs for splicingsnoRNA- small nucleolar RNAs. Guide RNAs for modifying rRNA in nucleolus (ie: post transcriptional basemodifications like methylation) and position snoRNPs. These base-pair with complementary regions of the pre-RNA molecule directing cleavage of the RNA chain and modification of bases during maturationof the srRNAs.siRNA- Short interfering RNAs (approx. 22 bases long) that
have been “chewed up” from long double
stranded RNA. They are perfectly complementary to a sequence in an mRNA. Together, with associatedproteins, siRNAs cause cleavage of the target RNA, leading to its rapid degradation. Produced from viralgenomes and pseudogenes.miRNA- Micro RNAs (approx. 22 bases long) that base pair with mRNAs to inhibit translation of thetarget mRNA. Can Watson-crick base pairing with some mismatching so one miRNA can regulatemultiple mRNAs. Fits into arognaute complex.Polyadenylation Complex- Factors that recognize and interact with specific sequences and add poly(A)tail. Consists of CPSF, G/U nucleotides, PAP, PABPII.CPSF (Cleavage and polyadenylation specific factors)- bind to phosphorylated binding protein on carboxyter
minal domain of RNA polymerase II. Able to “jump” from CTD to specific sequence in newly
synthesized mRNA and stimulates the poly (A) tail addition.G/U nucelotides- stabilize factors in polyadenylation complex.PAP (Polyadenylation Polymerase)- Recruited and binds to polyadenylation complex. Adds a couplehundred nucleotides and is template independent. Cleavage occurs after PAP bindingPABPII- uses ATP to coat Poly(A) tail. It has RRM binding domain.Dicer- produces small double stranded siRNAsArgonaute- Series of complexes (RISC and RITS)RISC (RNA Interfering Silencing Complex)- Uses siRNA to strip away one RNA strand of dsRNA appliesguide strand (remaining strand) to mRNA still being produced making it double stranded and RNA andsiRNA are cleaved and degraded.RITS (RNA-Interfering Transcriptional Silencing)- complex strips away 1 RNA strand from dsRNA. siRNAWatson-crick base pairs with mRNA and recruits proteins that cause gene repression.