is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a
, to remove material.There are two main types of broaching:
. In linear broaching, which is the morecommon process, the broach is run linearly against a surface of the workpiece to effect the cut.Linear broaches are used in a
, which is also sometimes shortenedto
. In rotary broaching, the broach is rotated and pressed into the workpiece to cut anaxis symmetric shape. A rotary broach is used in a lathe or screw machine.In both processes
the cut is performed in one pass of the broach, which makes it very efficient.
The process depends on the type of broaching being performed. Surface broaching is verysimple as either the workpiece is moved against a stationary surface broach, or the workpiece isheld stationary while the broach is moved against it. Internal broaching is more involved. Theprocess begins by clamping the workpiece into a special holding fixture,called a
,which mounts in the broaching machine. The broaching machine
, which is the part of themachine that moves the broach above the workholder, then lowers the broach through theworkpiece. Once through, the broaching machine's
, essentially a hook, grabs the
of the broach. The elevator then releases the top of the pilot and the puller pulls the broach throughthe workpiece completely. The workpiece is then removed from the machine and the broach israised back up to reengage with the elevator. The broach usually only moves linearly, butsometimes it is also rotated to create a spiral spline or gun-barrel rifling.
Broaching was originally developed for machining internal keyways. However, it was soondiscovered that broaching is very useful for machining other surfaces and shapes for highvolume workpieces. Because each broach is specialized to cut just one shape either the broachmust be specially designed for the geometry of the workpiece or the workpiece must be designedaround a standard broach geometry.