This paper was prepared by the IRENA Secretariat. The paper beneftted rom an internal IRENAreview, as well as valuable comments and guidance rom Ken Adams (Hydro Manitoba), Eman-uel Branche (EDF), Proessor LIU Heng (International Center on Small Hydropower), Truls Holtedahl(Norconsult AS), Frederic Louis (World Bank), Margaret Mann (NREL), Judith Plummer (Cam-bridge University), Richard Taylor (IHA) and Manuel Welsch (KTH).For urther inormation or to provide eedback, please contact Michael Taylor, IRENA Innovationand Technology Centre, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, 53175 Bonn, Germany; MTaylor@irena.org.This working paper is available or download rom www.irena.org/Publications
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The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation dedi-cated to renewable energy.In accordance with its Statute, IRENA’s objective is to “promote the widespread and increasedadoption and the sustainable use o all orms o renewable energy”. This concerns all orms oenergy produced rom renewable sources in a sustainable manner and includes bioenergy,geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean, solar and wind energy.As o May 2012, the membership o IRENA comprised 158 States and the European Union (EU),out o which 94 States and the EU have ratifed the Statute.
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