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Maint of Alternators ARP

Maint of Alternators ARP

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Published by ashokparikh

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Published by: ashokparikh on Nov 08, 2012
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06/07/2015

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MAINTENANCE OF ALTERNATORSMAINTENANCE OF ALTERNATORS
 By Ashok R. Parikh Engineering Consultant 
1.0INTRODUCTION
1.1Alternator is one of the principle equipments in the power plant besidesthe prime mover, steam generator, etc. Power plants are broadly classified under two heads, i.e. conventional utility power plants and captive power plants (CPP).1.2Conventional utility power plants generate power in bulk and feed to largeinterconnected power supply network. Captive power plants are installed by theindustries to meet in-house power requirements. Though, the industry having CPPmay also some power from the utility grid to meet eventualities such as failure of  power generation from CPP.1.3Hence, the alternator is one of the most critical equipments in any power supply system. Continuous availability of this critical equipment obviouslyrequires adherence to rigorous preventive maintenance schedule.1.4The alternators of rating from few kilowatts to 500 kW are found installedtoday. Depending on the capacity of alternator, the maintenance practices andschedule are decided.
2.0TYPES OF ALTERNATORS
2.1Generally, the alternators are classified as follows based on theconstruction of rotor.i.Salient pole rotor alternators – available rating up to 10 MWii.Cylindrical rotor alternators – above 10 MW
Storage
Do not remove plastic cover Do not remove plastic cover 
Clean, dry, covered storage with leveled surfaceClean, dry, covered storage with leveled surface
Prevention of rainwater accumulationPrevention of rainwater accumulation
Avoidance of corrosion due to moisture / dust combinationAvoidance of corrosion due to moisture / dust combination
Vibration free environment – protect bearings against induced standstill vibrationsVibration free environment – protect bearings against induced standstill vibrations
Pre-commissioning ChecksPre-commissioning C
 
hecks
Checks in storesChecks in stores  –  – Choose correct motor Choose correct motor  –  – Visual inspection – physical soundnessVisual inspection – physical soundness –  – Change of grease – prolonged storageChange of grease – prolonged storage –  – Insulation resistanceInsulation resistance
FoundationFoundation 
 
 –  – Perfectly leveled (shims if necessary)Perfectly leveled (shims if necessary) –  – RigidRigid –  – Isolated from induced vibrationsIsolated from induced vibrations
Drive / transmission ElementDrive / transmission Element  –  – Dimensions – checksDimensions – checks –  – Dynamic BalancingDynamic Balancing –  – Mount carefully (use appropriate tools)Mount carefully (use appropriate tools) –  – Heavy blows to be strictly avoided to protect bearingsHeavy blows to be strictly avoided to protect bearings –  – Lock the drive element suitablyLock the drive element suitably
Before connecting ensureBefore connecting ensure  –  – Free unobstructed air supply for coolingFree unobstructed air supply for cooling –  – Free passage of hot air Free passage of hot air  –  – Terminal box interior is clean (no cable remains etc.)Terminal box interior is clean (no cable remains etc.)- Check insulation resistance of cable using suitable megger before connecting- Check insulation resistance of cable using suitable megger before connecting –  – Tight and firm cable connections with proper air clearances, minimum 10mmTight and firm cable connections with proper air clearances, minimum 10mm for 415Vfor 415V –  – Sealing of unused conduit entry holes and proper assembly of gaskets andSealing of unused conduit entry holes and proper assembly of gaskets and coverscovers
Before starting ensureBefore starting ensure  –  – Shaft free to rotateShaft free to rotate –  – Supply system okaySupply system okay –  – Motor protecting system okayMotor protecting system okay –  – Earthing provided (both inside terminal box and on motor body)Earthing provided (both inside terminal box and on motor body)
Commissioning ChecksCommissioning C
 
hecks
Running on no loadRunning on no load  –  – Check direction of rotationCheck direction of rotation –  – Check terminal voltageCheck terminal voltage –  – Check no load currentCheck no load current –  – Check mechanical noise, if anyCheck mechanical noise, if any –  – Check vibration levelCheck vibration level –  – Check bearing noise, if anyCheck bearing noise, if any
Load motor gradually, if possible on load check Load motor gradually, if possible on load check   –  – Full load currentFull load current –  – Motor speedMotor speed –  –  Noise level Noise level –  – Vibration levelVibration level –  – Motor / bearing temp, (if possible)Motor / bearing temp, (if possible)Similar monitoring of driven equipment, with respect to its characteristics, should also bedone in the initial period.
Maintenance of MotorMaintenance of Motor
 
Electric motors “TEFC” in particular are robust, however periodic inspection andoverhauling lengthen the life of the motors in no small way, as the motors are dynamicequipment.
MaintenanceMaintenancePreventivePreventive
 –Planned –Planned –Low down-time cost –Low down-time cost –Carried out at ease & in-line with –Carried out at ease & in-line with  production schedules production schedules –Best available methods adopted achieving –Best available methods adopted achieving  best results – economical in the long run best results – economical in the long run
Break-downBreak-down
 –Forced type –Forced type –High down-time cost –High down-time cost –Carried out under pressure and tension –Carried out under pressure and tension –Emergency method adopted, often quality –Emergency method adopted, often quality of work short of best possible.of work short of best possible.
Preventive maintenancePreventive maintenance
Preventive maintenance can be divided into two partsPreventive maintenance can be divided into two parts  –  – Periodic checkups of motors while runningPeriodic checkups of motors while running –  – Periodic servicing of motorsPeriodic servicing of motors
How to go about these tasksHow to go about these tasks  –  – Classify the motors depending upon their importance and criticality to theClassify the motors depending upon their importance and criticality to the running plantrunning plant –  – Depending upon criticality, fix up monitoring cycles for motorsDepending upon criticality, fix up monitoring cycles for motors
What should be observedWhat should be observed  –  – Full load currentFull load current –  – Voltage and frequency variationsVoltage and frequency variations –  – Vibration level (both motor and equipment)Vibration level (both motor and equipment) –  – Bearing healthBearing healthRecording of these readings helps in identifying the deviations from the normalRecording
 
of these readings helps in identifying the deviations from the normal trendtrend –  – Periodic cleaning of cooling air pathsPeriodic cleaning of cooling air paths –  – Observance of motor re-greasing cyclesObservance of motor re-greasing cycles- Occasionally checking cable terminations in cable connection box and other - Occasionally checking cable terminations in cable connection box and other  fasteners’ tightness. In case the termination is found black or cable insulationfasteners’ tightness. In case the termination is found black or cable insulation heated, make termination again after cutting blackened portion.heated, make termination again after cutting blackened portion.--Replace terminal plate if found heated due to heating of termination.Replace terminal plate if found heated due to heating of termination.
Overhauling of motorOverhauling
 
of motor
Overhauling of motor Overhauling of motor   –  – Windings and bearings to be serviced properly for good and long service fromWindings and bearings to be serviced properly for good and long service from the motor the motor  –  – Remove bearing carefullyRemove bearing carefully
Look for Look for   –  – Any grease contamination before cleaning with thinner Any grease contamination before cleaning with thinner  –  – Blackening, overheatingBlackening, overheating –  – Damaged or cracked cagesDamaged or cracked cages –  – Dent marks, scratches on rolling elements or racesDent marks, scratches on rolling elements or races –  – Markings indicating eccentric loadingMarkings indicating eccentric loading –  – Sufficient grease quantity inside bearingSufficient grease quantity inside bearing

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