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Psychology Chapter 7

Psychology Chapter 7



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Published by cardenass
Myers AP Psychology 8th edition 7 chapter vocab and information
Myers AP Psychology 8th edition 7 chapter vocab and information

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Published by: cardenass on Jan 24, 2009
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Consciousness- our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Biological rhythm- periodic psychological fluctuations
Circadian rhythm- the biological clock
REM sleep (rapid eye movement) – a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreamscommonly occur 
Alpha waves- the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep- periodic natural, reversible loss of consciousness
Hallucinations- false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of anexternal visual stimulus
Delta waves- the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Insomnia- recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy- a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep apnea- a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing duringsleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Night terrors- a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of beingterrified- occur in stage 4
Manifest content- according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
Latent content- according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
REM rebound- the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Hypnosis- a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certainperceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur 
Posthypnotic suggestions- a suggestion, made during a hypnosis suggestion, to be carriedout after the subject is no longer hypnotized
Dissociation- a split in consciousness. Which allows some thought and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
Psychoactive drug- a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Tolerance- the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring theuser to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect
Withdrawal- the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictivedrug
Physical dependence- a psychological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawalsymptoms when the drug is discontinued
Psychological dependence- a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relive negativeemotions
Addiction- compulsive drug craving and use
Depressants- drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
Barbiturates- drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairingmemory and judgment
Opiates- opium and derivatives that depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain andanxiety
Stimulants- drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Amphetamines- drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functionsand associated energy and mood changes
Methamphetamine- a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS; reduces dopaminelevels
Ecstasy (MDMA)- a stimulant and mild hallucinogen
Hallucinogens- psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in theabsence of sensory input
LSD- a powerful hallucinogenic drug
THC- a major active drug in weed; mild hallucinations
Near-death experience- an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush withdeath; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
Dualism- the presumption that the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
Monism- the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thingI.Levels of Information Processinga.Consciousnessi.Def of: awareness of ourselves and environment-able to exert voluntary controland communicate our mental statesii.Cannot be touched, found or picked up—therefore, it is a construct.b.Subconsciousi.Most of out sorting, parallel processing occurs here; whirling all the time-includesdaydreams, fantasies, dreaming.c.Daydreams
-4% of population are classified as fantasy prone personalities-have troubledistinguishing real from imaginary.ii.Why is daydreaming or under the surface processing a good thing?1.-allows us to “practice” what to say or do.2.-enhances creativity when we live in our “make believe worlds.”3.-good substitute for impulsive behaviors.
Stages of Sleep/Dreaming- each cycle last about 90 minutes Circadian Rhythma.Stage One-alpha waves on EEG-lasts only a few minutes-“awake” but very relaxed; hair grows, new cells are made, chemicals in brain are restored.
Stage Two-alpha waves disappear; sleep spindles appear on EEG (about 20 minutes);sleep talking here and in other later stages.c.Stage Three-transitional stage; sleep walking may occur (non-REM phase)
Stage Four-delta waves-deep sleep—when you are really resting-(30 minutes for 3 and 4together); bed wetting, growth hormones.
REM---body is paralyzed but brain is active; 4 or 5 dreams every night; each one a little longer-last from 5-45 minutes; bp rises, brain fires, eyes move. About 100 minutes a night is REM sleep.IV.Non- REMa.Brain is active, but body is at restb.This is when you are really restingc.Bp and breathing is downV.Theories on why we dream
Restorative theories-sleep restores depleted levels of energy; eliminates waste productsfrom muscles, repairs cells, oculomotor system maintenance=stage 4 sleep increasesafter excessive physical exertion. Helps us to “solve problems” (sleep on it). Researchshows people with interpersonal problems enter REM earlier and stay there longer.b.Reprogramming theories-(Evans/Foulks)-Dreams are the brain’s attempt at interpretingand assimilating new information. Filing “stuff” away that senses took in during the day;weaving it together so you can file in under “dreams.”c.Reverse learning theory-(Crick/Mitchison)-Dreams/sleep enable the brain to eraseinformation that is no longer needed and file it is a drawer marked “of little use.”d.Sentinel theory-(Snyder)-wake up briefly at the end of REM to check environment for danger—(very evolutionary in thought)
Freudian theory-Dreams are a safety valve where you can have unacceptable urges or wishes and no one will know.

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