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Psychology Chapter 8

Psychology Chapter 8



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Published by cardenass
Myers AP Psychology 8th edition chapter 8 vocab and information
Myers AP Psychology 8th edition chapter 8 vocab and information

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Published by: cardenass on Jan 24, 2009
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Pg 347, Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Learning- A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due toexperience.
Associative learning- It is when an organism learns by linking two eventsthat occur close together. The animals learn to predict the immediatefunction.
Classical Conditioning- A form of learning in which we associate twostimuli and thus to anticipate events.
Behaviorism- The school of thought that stresses the need for psychologyto be an objective science. This perspective was first suggested andpropagated by John Watson in 1913, who wanted psychology to studyonly observable behaviors and get away from the study of the consciousmind completely. Watson's primary rationale was that only observableevents are verifiable and thus, are the only events that can be provenfalse.
Unconditioned Response (UR)- In classical conditioning, the unlearned,naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus(US).
Unconditioned stimulus- In classical conditioning, an unconditionedstimulus (US or UCS) is any stimulus that can evoke a response withoutthe organism going through any previous learning; the response to the US(the unconditioned response) occurs naturally.
Conditioned Response- the conditioned response (CR) is the learnedresponse (reflexive behavior) to a conditioned stimulus (CS). Thisresponse is almost identical to the Unconditioned Stimulus except thatnow the reflexive behavior occurs in response to a conditioned stimulus asopposed to an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus- a formerly neutral stimulus that, after associationwith an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to produce a conditionedresponse
Acquisition- Initial learning of the stimulus-response relationship. Inoperant conditioning, the strengthening of reinforced responses.
Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classicalconditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow aconditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response isno longer reinforced.
Spontaneous recovery- The reappearance after a pause, of anextinguished conditioned response.
Generalization- The tendency, once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Discrimination- In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguishbetween a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal anunconditioned stimulus.
Operant conditioning- a type of learning in which behavior is strengthenedif followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Respondent behavior- Behavior that occurs as an automatic response tosome stimulus; Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classicalconditioning.
Operant behavior- behavior that operates on the environment, producingconsequences.
Law of effect- Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorableconsequences become more likely and that behaviors followed byunfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant chamber- A chamber also known as a skinner boxy, containing abar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcement, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
Shaping- An operant conditioning procedure which reinforcers guidebehavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Reinforcer- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens thebehavior it follows.
Positive reinforcement- A stimulus which increases the frequency of aparticular behavior using pleasant rewards.
Negative reinforcement- With negative reinforcement the occurrence of abehavior is increased by removing an unpleasant stimulus.
Primary reinforcer- used in conditioning, and it refers to anything thatprovides reinforcement without the need for learning to an organism.
Conditioned reinforcer- A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power throughits association with a primary reinforcer. It is also known as secondaryreinforcement.
Continuous reinforcement- This is an operant conditioning principle inwhich an organism is reinforced every single time that organism providesthe appropriate operant response.
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement- Reinforcing a response only part of thetime. This results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Fixed ratio schedule- In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedulethat reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable ratio schedule- A variable ratio schedule (VR) is a type of operantconditioning reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after an unpredictable (variable) number of responses are made by theorganism.
Fixed interval schedule- With this type of operant conditioningreinforcement schedule, an organism must wait for a specific amount of time and then make the operant response in order to receivereinforcement.
Variable-interval schedule- In operant conditioning, a reinforcementschedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Punishment- an even that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Cognitive map- A cognitive map is a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
Latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is anincentive to demonstrate it.
Intrinsic motivation- A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Extrinsic motivation- a desire to perform threats of punishment.
Observational learning- learning by observing others.
Modeling- the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior 
Mirror neurons- frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certainactions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action my enable imitation, language learning and empathy.
Prosocial behavior- the positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Theopposite of antisocial behavior.I.Learninga.A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.. butnot die to maturation/ drugsb.Forerunner- Thorndike: “law of effect”- any behavior that leads to asatisfying an outcome will be repeatedc.Study of…rooted in philosophy and psychologyd.Conditioning= process of learning associationi.Classical- involuntaryii.Operant- voluntary1.schedules of reinforcement
acquisition- 1
phase of learningII.classical conditioninga.learning which involves reflex responsesb.Pavlovs dogc.Unconditioned stimulus (US)—(UR) reflective actioni.Stimulus which produces a reflexive action, introduction of food stimulus to pair with US CS---CR (same action)ii.The CS must occur a second or so before the UCS for optimum results; if presented after- no learning occursd.everyday examples of classical conditioning
stomach growlse.generalizationi.the tendency to produce a CR to both the original CS and tothe stimuli which are similar to it in some wayf.discriminationi.the ability to distinguish between two stimuli1.requires training- otherwise generalizations will occur g.extinction- used to know how o do somethingh.spontaneous recovery- comes back to youIII.operant conditioning

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