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Psychology Chapter 14

Psychology Chapter 14



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Published by cardenass
Myers AP Psychology 8th edition chapter 14 vocab and information
Myers AP Psychology 8th edition chapter 14 vocab and information

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Published by: cardenass on Jan 24, 2009
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Chapter 14 549- 567Behavioral medicine- an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medicalknowledge and applies that knowledge to health and diseaseHealth psychology- a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution tobehavioral medicineStress- the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors,which we appraise as threatening or challengingGeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS) - Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response tostress in three stages- alarm, resistance, exhaustionCoronary heart disease- the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leadingcause of death in many developed countriesType A- Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verballyaggressive, and anger-prone peopleType B- Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed peoplePsychophysiological illness- literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness,such as hypertension and some headachesLymphocytes- the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system: Blymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight antibacterial infections;T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses,and foreign substanceCoping- alleviating stress using emotional cognitive, or behavioral methodsProblem-focused coping- attempting to alleviate stress directly- by changing the stressor or theway we interact with that stressor Emotion-focused coping- attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor andattending emotional needs related to one’s stress reactionAerobic exercise- sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviatedepression and anxietyBiofeedback- a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back informationregarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
What is stress?a.An event that triggers tension or worryb.A person’s perception of an eventi.A perceived difference between a demand placed in a person and his/her ability to handle it; usually based on a past experiencec.A person’s physical or psychological response to an event or situationd.Stressor- the stress producing situation, event, or persone.Stress reaction- our body’s responsei.Heart rate, immune system clinking, etc.1.hormones: released from adrenal glands- epinephrine,norepinephrine, glucorticoids, cortisolf.Distress- negative stress; stems from acute anxiety or pressure; takes a toll onthe body and mindg.Eustress- positive stress; results from striving to do wellh.Death- complete freedom from stressWhat is conflict?a.Choice between alternates in order to be resolved- consequences involvedi.Approach-approach1.two-attractive choicesii.Approach-avoidance1.one attractive choice and one unattractive2.intensity or desire to do the attractive or the perceived threat of avoiding the unattractive determines stress levela.i.e. watch T.V./text-do homeworkiii.Avoidance-avoidance1.two unattractive alternatives2.creates high stress level “lesser of two evils”a.crash or swerveiv.Double-approach avoidance1.most common2.both alternative have good/bad aspects.3.degree of stress depends on intensity of attractiveness or repulsiona.i.e. quit job-friends or no friends (with job)
Stress hormones: epinephrine and norepepinephrine from adrenal glands
Cerebral cortex-more stress; outer parts of adrenal glands let off glucocorticoid stresshormones
Our behaviors, such as smoking regular exercise, nutrition, and exposure to prolongedstress can affect our susceptibility to heart disease, cancer, stroke, and chronic lungdisease, as well as making us more vulnerable t high blood pressure, skin rashes, andother illnesses. The field of behavioral medicine is based on the understanding thatmind and body interact. Within that field, health physiology studied the ways out
attitudes, emotions, behaviors, and personality influence our health well-being, and riskof disease
Stress is not an action or condition; instead, it is a process by which we respond tostressful events (stressors). An important part of that process is our appraisal of anevent as threatening, challenging, or unimportant. Our appraisals help determinewhether our response will be healthy feelings of energized and directed arousal, or overwhelming feelings of distress
Our response to stress is a prime example of mind-body interaction. The first (andfaster) track of the stress-response system is the fight-or-flight response, identified byWalter Cannon, in which the sympathetic nervous system responds to a stressor onseveral fronts: the inner parts of the adrenal glands pour out epinephrine andnopreinephrine, heart and respiration rates increase, blood flows away from digestiveorgans and towards skeletal muscles sensation of pain diminish, and the body releasesstored sugar and fat, on the slower track of the immune system, the cerebral cortex,perceiving a stressor, stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to trigger therelease of glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as cortical, from the outer part of theadrenals. The three stages of general adaptation syndrome, Hans Selye’s concept of the body’s response to stress are alarm (temporary shock state in which the bodymobilizes resources), resistance (period of coping with the stressor), and exhaustion(depilation of reserves following prolonged stress)
Large-scale catastrophic events can increase depression and anxiety and causeproblem with concentrating and sleeping. Significant personal life events, such aslosses and even changes may leave people vulnerable to disease. But daily hassles-thecontinuing series of small, everyday stressors-are the most significant sources of stressfor most people and can damage health and well-being.
Stress can increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The vital link in this stress-disease path is negative emotions-depression, pessimism, but especially anger. TheFriedman-Rosenman study, the first to show the anger-heart-disease link, contrastedType A personalities with Type B. Under stress, Type A people are psychologically morereactive, with an outpouring of hormones that accelerate the buildup of plaque to arterywalls, leading to high blood pressure and increased risk of strokes and heart attacks.
Psychologists use the term psychophysiological illness to describe stress-relatedphysical illness such as hypertension and some headaches. These real illnesses differ from hypochrondriasis, or misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of adisease.
The immunes systems V lymphocytes release antibodies that fight bacterial infections.The T lymphocytes fight cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. Other immune-system agents, the macrophages, ingest harmful invaders, worn-out cells, and other internal debris. Stress does not directly cause disease, but when energy is divertedaway from the immune system activities are redirected toward the stress-responsesystem, we become more vulnerable to infections and disease
AIDS is caused by HIV virus, not by stress. But stress and negative emotions mayaccelerate the progression from viral infection to actual AIDS. HIV-positive individuals

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