—Institute of EarthSciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel;
—Woodley Weather Consultants, Littleton, Colorado;
—Department of Atmospheric Science,Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;
— Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island,Narragansett, Rhode Island;
—Golden Research andConsulting, Boulder, Colorado
Daniel Rosenfeld, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem91904, IsraelE-mail:email@example.com
The abstract for this article can be found in this issue, following thetable of contents.
In final form 10 January 2012©2012 American Meteorological Society
Because dust and pollution redistribute the latent heating through precipitation processesin a way that weakens tropical cyclones, incorporating these effects in models may improveprediction of storm intensities.
ACkGRoUnD AnD MotivAtion.
Tropical cyclones (TC) are energized by thehuge amount of latent heat that is released by thecondensation of water and its subsequent precipita-tion. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in theprecipitation-forming processes that would changeor redistribute the precipitation in the TC wouldalso redistribute the latent heating and respectively affect the dynamics of the storm and its intensity.This concept was first invoked in the STORMFURYhurricane-mitigation experiment (Willoughby et al.1985) that focused on glaciogenic seeding of vigorousconvective clouds within the eyewall. Seeding withsilver iodide of these strong cloud towers at the outerperiphery of the eyewall was postulated to freezesupercooled water (i.e., liquid water cooled to below 0°C) and release the latent heat of freezing. Accordingto the conceptual chain, this would invigorate theconvection (Simpson et al. 1967) in these clouds atthe expense of air converging to the eyewall, andhence lead to its reformation at a larger radius, andthus, through partial conservation of angular mo-mentum, produce a decrease in the strongest winds.Because a TC’s destructive potential increases withthe cube of its strongest winds, a reduction as smallas 10% in its wind speed could reduce the destructivepower of these storms by 33%. In fact, STORMFURYintended to cause the process that was later recog-nized as the naturally occurring secondary eyewallformation in mature TCs (Willoughby et al. 1982).
AEROSOL EFFECTS ONMICROSTRUCTURE ANDINTENSITY OF TROPICALCYCLONES
july 2012AMERICAN METEOROlOGICAl SOCIETy