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TOP 70 DISEASES and HUMAN ANATOMY

TOP 70 DISEASES and HUMAN ANATOMY

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Published by Paula Go
Nursing
Nursing

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Paula Go on Nov 10, 2012
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02/17/2015

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TOP 105 DISEASES AND HUMAN ANATOMY
(for NLE review)
In alphabetical order 
*** Common Board Question
1.ABSENT MECONIUM PASSAGE within 24 hours after birth
Imperforate anus
Hirschprung’s disease
Cystic fibrosis
2.ACROMEGALY
Increase growth hormone AFTER puberty
Increase glucose level (high Growth hormone = high Glucose)
S/Sx:
Broad and bulbous nose
Enlarged hands and feet
Continuous grow of soft tissues (ear, nose)
Macroglossia (large tongue)***
Complications
Enlarged heart
Diabetes mellitus
Heart failure
Reason of seeking for medical care: change in appearance***
Management:
Octreotide (Sandostatin)***
SEE notes on TOP DRUGS 
give SQ if given 3x a week***
3.ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS)
“shock lung”
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Pathophysiology:
o
Decreased surfactants
o
Decreased surface tension
o
Damage to alveolar-capillary membrane
o
Leakage of fluid into the ITS
o
Resulting to pulmonary edema
S/Sx:
o
Dyspnea, retractions
o
Pulmonary edema
o
Crackles
4.
ADDISON’s and CUSHINGS DISEASE
ADDISONs CUSHINGs
“All STEROIDS (S.S.S.) are DOWNexcept for Potassium”“All STEROIDS (S.S.S.) are UPexcept for Potassium”
MAINPROBLEMand itsmanifestationsDOWN: SUGAR (
 
HYPOglycemia)DOWN: SALT (HYPONATREMIA)
HYPOVOLEMIA
DHN, weightloss
HYPOTENSIONDOWN: SEX HORMONES
Decrease sexual urge or libidoUP: Potassium
HYPERKALEMIA
Weakness, fatigue
 Tachycardia, Arrhythmia
Diarrhea
Metabolic acidosis
 Tall/ Tented T wavesUP: SUGAR (HYPERglycemia)UP: SALT (HYPERNATREMIA)
HYPERVOLEMIA
Edema (Moonface, Weight gain)
HYPERTENSIONUP: SEX HORMONES
Decrease sexual urge or libido
Virilization (mascularity in female)
Amenorrhea, Hirsutism,Enlargement of clitoris
Osteoporosis
Gynecomastia (males)DOWN: Potassium
HYPOKALEMIA
Weakness, fatigue
Bradycardia
Constipation
Metabolic alkalosis
Flat T wave, presence of U wave***MANAGEMEN T YES steroids (pro-Na, anti-K)Monitor VS, I&O, weightDIET: high calorie, high CHO (glucose),high NA, low K NO steroidsMonitor VS, I&O, weightDIET: low calorie, low CHO, low Na, high K, high CHONReverse isolation*BILATERAL ADRENALECTOMYGIVE Calcium (for osteoporosis)COMPLICATIONSADDISONIAN CRISIS/ACUTE ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY(COMA):Risk for infectionPathologic fracture***Osteoporosis***
 
severe headache or back pain,severe generalized, muscle weakness,diarrhea or constipation,confusion, lethargy,severe hypotension, circulatory collapseDMArrhythmia
S.S.S (Sugar, Salt, Sex hormone)
steroids
Cushing’s disease
prone to infection (isolate patient)***
5.AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (AMD)
related to aging
bilateral loss of CENTRAL vision with presentation of peripheral vision
6.ALPORT’s SYNDROME
Hereditary
Like AGN (acute glomerulonephritis)
S/Sx: hematuria from start to finish
Common: males
Confirmatory diagnostic test: kidney biopsy
DIET: decrease CHON
7.
ANEMIA
 – decrease oxygen carrying
capacity 
of RBC
Common Nursing diagnosis: Activity intolerance***
Common S/Sx:
F – aintingF – atigueF – orgetfullness
TYPES
Iron-deficiency anemia (microcytic and hypochromic)***
S/Sx: koilonychia (spoon shaped fingernail)*** , pale and chubby
Megaloblastic anemia (macrocytic and hyperchromic)
Pernicious anemia – immature RBC due to lack of vitamin B12
Folic Acid Deficiency anemia – immature RBC due to lack of vitamin B9
 Aplastic Anemia
disorder of bone marrow
decrease RBC, platelet, WBC
Sickle cell anemia – sickled RBC
Management for Sickle cell anemia:***
1)
H – ydration
2)
O – oxygenation
3)
P – ain management
8.
ANEURYSM
 – is ballooning of the blood vessel
TYPES
o
Saccular – one sided ballooning
o
Fusiform – two sided ballooning (circumferential)
o
Dissecting – a
TEAR 
in the intima of the blood vessel***
Type A – affects the ascending aorta
Type B – affects the descending aorta
Complications:
rupture/ internal hemorrhage/ shock
9.
ANGINA PECTORIS: Management
2 GOALS IN ANGINAL MANAGEMENT:Goal # 1: Increase oxygen supply to the myocardium (vasodilation)Goal # 2: Decrease oxygen demand
A.
Nitrates
– Goal # 1
the mainstay for treatment of angina pectoris
MODE OF ACTION:
a.
dilates the veins primarily (but in higher doses, it also dilates the arteries)b.causes venous pooling in peripheral body parts thus less blood returns to the heart and fillingpressure (preload) is reduced
 
Example: Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, Nitrol, Nitrobid IV),Isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur),Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)
Side effects: flushing, throbbing headache, hypotension, dizziness
Keep drug only for 6 months, cool, dry and dark environment
Carry all times
DO NOT administer with Sildenafil (Viagra)
 AVOID: hot baths because it causes massive vasodilation
B.
Beta Blockers
– Goal # 2
Example: Propranolol (inderal), Metropolol (Lopressor), atenolol (Tenormin)
MODE OF ACTION: Blocks the beta-adrenergic sympathetic stimulation of the heart thus reducingmyocardial oxygen consumption***
C.
Calcium Channel Blockers
– Goal # 1 and 2
Examples: Amlodipine (Norvasc), Verapamil, Nifedipine, Diltiazem (Cardizem), felodipine (Plendil)
amlodipine and felodipine (Plendil) are the Calcium Channel blocker’ of choice for heart failure
D.
Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant
Examples:
aspirin, clopidrogel (Plavix), ticlopidine (Ticlid)
MODE OF ACTION: prevents platelet aggregation
clopidrogel (Plavix) or ticlopidine (Ticlid) is given to patients who are allergenic to aspirin***
10.APPENDICITIS
Inflammation of the appendix
LOCATION: RLQ/ right iliac/ Mc Burney’s point
CAUSE:
due to obstruction from fecalith
low fiber dietObstruction of the appendix by a fecalith, inflammation, foreign body, or NeoplasmIncreased intraluminal pressureVenous congestion, bacterial invasion Abscess, Infection, thrombosisGangrene and perforation if untreated within 36 hoursPeritonitis
MANIFESTATIONS:
increase WBC, fever 
PECULIAR SIGNS:
Rovsing’s signpressure on the LLQ causes pain in the RLQ
Mc Burney’s signpain at RLQ upon palpation
Psoas signpain on passive extension of right hip (lateral position with right hip flexion)
Obturator sign***pain with passive flexion and internal rotation of the right hip
Blumberg signrebound tenderness (peritonitis)
(+) cough sign***RLQ pain on coughing
With pain – inflammationWithout pain – rupture
Tachycardia – late sign
 Abdominal distention and paralytic ileus/ decreased or absent bowels sounds
MANAGEMENT:
Bed rest
NPO
PAIN management
o
 ALLOW: cold application
o
 AVOID:
warm compress
analgesics – will mask the pain*
Laxatives, enema, palpation – increase peristalsis
POSITION:
o
(acute phase)most comfortable position; Semi fowler’s to relieve pain and discomfort
o
(rupture)upright
Sx: Appendectomy
o
Position: flat on bed

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