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computer fundamentals

computer fundamentals

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Published by Arun Balan
computer fundamentals
computer fundamentals

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Published by: Arun Balan on Nov 10, 2012
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06/03/2013

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Softtech Solution
IT Academy
21 Heerassagala Road, Kandy Tel: Tel:081- 4481888, 4921454, 2240585E-MailE-Mailsofttech@wow.lk
Page 1
Softtech
 
COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS
NFORMATION 
consists of facts and items of knowledge. It can be anything that has meaning to people.Usually information is expressed in words and numbers. However, it can be expressed in other  forms, such as sounds, measurements or pictures.Ex:
 A list of names and addresses.
The contents of a letter.
The words of a song.
 A map.
D
 ATA
 
I
s information in which it can be processed.Ex:
 A word processed letter stored on a floppy disc
 A song written as sheet music so that it can be played.
 A telephone conversation converted to electrical signals to be sent down the wires.
ROCESSING
NFORMATION 
Information processing is the organization, manipulation and distribution of information.
Sorting a list of names and address into alphabetical order.
Producing a letter with a word processor, saving it on floppy disc and then sendingit by electronic mail.
Transmitting a conversation over the phone system.
ROCESSING
O
NFORMATION 
ITHOUT 
M
 ACHINES
Ex:
Listening to songs and deciding which ones are best.
Reading a map to get from one place to another.
HE 
D
 ATA
ROCESSING
C
YCLE 
When data is collected and processed, whether by computer or by other means, a set of operationsis carried out on it. The sequence of operations : data collection, input, process, output is called adata processing cycle.
Page 2
MemoryProcessing
 
NFORMATION 
ECHNOLOGY 
NFORMATION 
 
TECHNOLOGY 
 
(IT) is all types of equipment and programs which are used in the processingof information.ex:
 A computer.
 A calculator.
 A fax machine.
 A telephone.
SES
O
NFORMATION 
ECHNOLOGY 
The term ‘information technology is also used to refer to the uses of this technology. The maintypes of use involved are:
Presentation of information.
Handling information.
Searching data, sorting it into order and analyzing
Producing modules of real situations
Data communication.
Control and measurement
D
IGITAL
A
ND
A
NALOGUE 
D
 ATA
 
 A device is digital if some quantity in it can be set to a number of different separate valuesor states. Data is then represented by combinations by these values. Usually the devices are binary and data is represented as a succession of 1s and 0s. An analogue device is one in which data is represented by some quantity which iscontinuously variable. The value of a data item at a given time is represented by the size of thequantity measured on a fixed scale.
C
OMPUTERS
 A Computer is a programmable, multipurpose machine that accepts data (e.g. raw data, facts & figures) and processes, or manipulates it into information we can use, such as summaries or totalsEX: An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) computes the deposits and withdrawals to give you thetotal in your account.
Computer: (ISO)
A programmable functional unit that consists of one or more associate processing units and peripheral equipment, that is controlled by internally stored programs and that can perform substantial computation, including numerous arithmetic operations or logicoperations, without human intervention during a run. A computer may be a stand-alone unit or may consist of several interconnected units.
Page 3

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