news is actually reported speech' (2006: 59). For example, as John Richardson (2007: 102) notes, 'anews report may contain elements of a press release, or a quote from a source either involved inthe reported action/event (information) or commenting on it (evaluation)'.
Interdiscursivity refers to the phenomenon whereby elements from different
resulting in new hybrid or nodal discourses. Interdiscursivity can also refer to thecombination in text of context and
features associated with different
hybrid genres. For example, Milonas (2007: 100) notes that television genres are flexible enough tomix and provide new creative possibilities. With reference to a documentary film on the Londontransport attacks of 7 July 2005, Milonas states that the film's hybrid genre 'has strong elements of the traditional foundations of documentary, enriched by new stylistic choices, performance, thefilmmaker's presence and entertainment' (ibid.). Another example, given by Blackledge (2007: 11),would be the use of conversational features of language in the formal context of a speech toParliament. According to Fairclough (2003), interdiscursivity in text creates a hybridity of socialpractices characteristic of the blurring of social boundaries.
In Systemic Functional Grammar, language is seen as a social system of semiotic resources, whichexists as a
. The system is organised into 'strata' at different levels of abstraction.They are related by means of realization. The semantic strata is realised in lexicogrammar - thenetwork of lexical and grammatical options available for the expression of meaning. In the semanticstrata, three basic elements of a semantic configuration are identified:
These are realised in lexicogrammar as verbs, nominals andadverbials. CDA is often concerned with
choices at the level of lexicogrammar. The
availability of choice in lexicogrammar means linguistic representation is always necessarilyideological.
Metaphor is a linguistic and conceptual structure which has received growing attention in CDA. A whole approach dedicated to metaphor now exists under the bannar of Critical Metaphor Analysis(Charteris-Black 2004). According to Charteris-Black, metaphor is 'central to critical discourseanalysis since it is concerned forming a coherent view of reality' (2004: 28).Critical Metaphor Analysis applies metaphor theory from Cognitive Linguistics. Here, metaphor isseen as a conceptual structure in which one domain of experience provides the basis for ourunderstanding of another more abstract social domain (Lakoff and Johnson 1980).These
metaphors are an important part of ideology since they 'provide the cognitive