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Overview Industrial Health

Overview Industrial Health

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from Health Action October 2012
from Health Action October 2012

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Published by: Prabir Kumar Chatterjee on Nov 10, 2012
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12/04/2012

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Occupationalnd
Industrialealth
NipinKalal
ccupationalndndustrialealrhsacross-disciplinaryareaconcernedwithprotectingthesafety,healthandwelfareofpeopleengagednworkoremployment.The goalsofoccupationalafetvanclhcalthproerolnntts:n!.lLrdefbsterinssufcanclealthr iorkenvironntent.t il.,ralsoprotecto-uorkers.anrilrntentber:.ntplrr\er\.customers.ndmanrothers,rhomightbeaitectedrthe workplaceenvironment.Occupationalhealthhasbeentlescribedasthe'promotionandntaintenancef physicalandmentalwell-beingof allstaff,adescriptioneinfbrcedbytheHealthandSafetyExecutiveby concentr-atingn theprovisionofasafeandhealthyworkplacewherethewelfareofstaffis amajorfactor.
Workplacehazards
PhysicalandmechaniculhazardsPhysicalhazardsare acommonsourceof injuriesnmanyndustries.heyareperhapsnavoidablen manyindustriesuchasconstructionndmining,butoverimepeoplehavedevelopedafetymethodsandprocedurestomanagehe isksof physicaldangern theworkplace.FallsareA commoncauseof occupationalnjuriesandfatalities,especiallynconstruction,xtraction.transpoftation,ealthcare,ndbuildingcleaninganclmaintenance.TheNationalnstituteofOccupationalaf'etyndHealthdefines"conflnedspace"as havinglimitedopeningsorentryandexitandunfhvourablenaturalventilation,andwhichis notintendedorcon'.inuousemployeeccupancy.heseindsof spacesan ncludestorageanks,hipcompartments,ewers,ndpipelines.Confinedspacesanposeahazardnotusttoworkers,butalsoo peoplewhotryto rescuehem.Noisealso presentsa fairlycommonworkplacehazard:occupationalearingosssthemostcommonwork-relatednjuryintheUnitedStates,with2}millionworkersexposedohazardousoiseevelsatworkandanestimated242millionspentannuallyonworker'scompensationorhearingossdisability.Oc:cupcttionalearing/oss..exposureo chemicalssuch asaromaticsolventsandmetalsncludinglead,arsenic.andmercurycanalso causehearingoss.Heat .ytressancauseheatstroke,exhaustion.cramps.andashes.Heatcanalso ogupsafetyglassesorcause weatyalmsordizziness,llofwhichncreasethe riskofothernjuries.Workersnearhotsurfacesrsteamalsoireat riskfbrburns.Dehydrationmayalsoresult}omoverexposureo heat.Coldstresslsoposesa dangeromanyworkers.Overexposureocoldconditionsorextremecoldcanleadto hypothermia,frostbite.renchoot,orchilblains.Electric'itt,posesdangeromanyworkers.Electricalnjuriescanbedividedntofourtypes:atalelectrocution,lectricshock,burns,andallscausedycontactwithelectricenergy.Vibratingmachineryighting,andairpressureanalsocausework-relatedllnessand injury.Asphyxiationsanotherpotentialworkhazardncertainsituations.
HealthAction aOctober20.12
 
Hi"l"ri"ffitTffiF.$E$$€s,B8#EXij,rFlii$l"".Tff8"#g!ffi$E.;g,i$jgBIfBiii3iiliig$iEE;f;iEiiiilgi$$$$#Eiii'i.'iii!Constructions one ofthe mostdangerous ccupationsntheworld,incurringmoreoccupationalatalitieshanany other sectornboth theUnitedStatesand n the EuropeanUnion. In 2009,hefatal occupationalnjury rateamongconstructionorkersn theUnitedStateswasnearly hree imeshatbrallll'orkers.Falls are one of the mostcommoncausesof fatal andnon-fatal njuriesamongconstructionworkers. Propersafetyequipment uchas harnessesndguardrailsandproceduresuchassecuring addersand nspectingscaffolding ancurtailheriskofoccupationalnjuries n the constructionindustrv.
Musculoskeletal isordersareavoidedby the:mploymentofgoodergonomicdesignand he eductionrf repeated trenuousmovementsr lifts.Eiological hazardsrBacteria,Virus, Fungi,Mold, Blood-bornepathogens,and TuberculosisChemicalhazsrdsrAcids, Bases,Heavymetals,Lead,Solvents,Petroleum. ParliculatesDAsbestosandother inedust/fibrousmaterials,Silica,Fumes(noxiousgases/vapours),ighly-reactivechemicalsrFire,conflagrationandexplosionhazards Explosion,Deflagration,Detonation,Conflagration)rPsychological nd social ssuesrWork-related stress.whose causalactors includeexcessiveworking timeand overworkrViolence rom outsidehe organisationrBullying, which may includeemotionaland verbalabuserSexual harassmentrMobbingoBurnoutIExposure o unhealthyelements uringmeetingswithbusinessssociates,.g.obacco, ncontrolledlcohol
!iiiiiiliii:iliiiit$tlri:j:i:i:.
Occupationalsafetyndhealthyndustry
Specificoccupational afetyandhealthconceffrsarygreatlyby ssctor and industry.Constructionworkersmightbeparticularlyt risk of f alls. or instance,hereasfishermenmight beparlicularlyatrisk of drowning.TheUnited StatesBureauof LaborStatistics dentifies hefishing,aviation. umber, metalworking,agriculture,mining andransporlationndustriessamongsomeof the moredangerousbrworkers.CortstntctiottConstructions oneof themostdangerousccupationsin theutrrld. ncurrinsuoreoccupationalatalitieshanany'other sector n both thr-'UnttedStates ud ntheEuropeannion.In1009. he ataloccupationalnjuryrateamongconstructionorkersn theUnitedStateswas nearly threeimes that for all workers.Falls areone of the most commoncauses f fatalandnon-tatalinjuriesamong constructionworkers. Proper safetyequipmentsuch as harnessesndguardrailsandproceduresuch as securing addersand inspectingscaffblding an curlail the riskof occupationalnjuriesin the constructionndustry.AgricultureAgricultureworkersareoften at risk of work-relatedinjuries,ung disease, oise-inducedearingoss.skindisease.s well as ceftain cancers elated o chemicaluseorprolongedunexposure.Onndustrializedarms,injuries requently nvolve the use ofagriculturalmachinery. hemostcommoncausef f'atalgriculturalinjuries n theUnitedStatess tractorollovers,whichcan beprevented1 the use of rolloverprotectionstructures hich inrit he iskof injury n casetractorrolls orer.!61 Pesticidesnd otherchemicals sed nfannine can alsobe hazardous oworker health, andworkerserposedopesticidesmayexperiencellnessesor birrh defects.
{eallhAction October012

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