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Literature review

Literature review

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Published by Mubeen Shaikh
cine club
cine club

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Mubeen Shaikh on Nov 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Literature Review
Now a century old, the cinema has historically enjoyed a competitive advantage over otherforms of entertainment, as built upon two foundations which are currently being undermined.
During the movie industry’s first century, movie theatres represented the
first-release retailmarket for the American film industry. Until movies were first broadcast on television in thelate 1950s, and later became available on video, they could only be seen in a movie theatre.Moreover, until the recent introduction of alternative digital delivery technologies and bigscreen televisions, the primary medium for watching movies on large, wide screens has alsobeen in movie theatres (Sliver & McDonnell, 2007).The cinema suffered a considerable decline with the development of the television from the1950s. The introduction of new competing technologies broadly corresponds to decliningmovie theatre attendance over time. It also indicates that the mass movie-going audiencefragmented after World War II as more product substitutes (black and white TV, colour TV,Pay TV, home video, PCs) emerged over time to provide alternative entertainment options(Stuart, 1976). Fig -1 indicates annual US movie admissions from 1920 to 2005 (Taylor,Funk, & Craighill, 2006).(Taylor, Funk, & Craighill, 2006)Owing to the relatively recent, dynamic growth of the home video market, current releasewindows between movie theatres and videos have been shrinking. As such,
Movie theatres are facing an uncertain future, one in which they might well no longer hold
the firm competitive advantage that they’ve historically enjoyed.
 The availability of product substitutes has been increasing, due to the diffusion of homecinema and other digital technologies that enable consumers to watch movies in forms otherthan on a theatre screen. Some of the most recent and dramatic threats to movie theatres havearisen from the sudden emergence of the home cinema industry. The cinema is still a veryexpensive way of showing entertainment and with very different social and economiccharacteristic to the home video market. However the two are now closely linked: a film maymake more money on the video release, and the popularity of a film in one medium is noindicator of potential success in the other. The cinema production industry is an extremelyimportant source of entertainment programming, but has very particular features related tothe economics of information: the upfront costs are often huge compared to the distribution.The industry has adopted a form of promotion that uses hype, the cult of stars, and carefulplanned release of films to maximise audience interest and thus revenue (Epstein, 2005).Sociological and psychological studies on leisure and entertainment can help us to understandhow multimedia could develop in use in entertainment, and fills the gap in the understandingof why users opt for certain multimedia products and not others. Leisure time is one of thecentral spaces for socialisation, consumption, and the formation and expression the self.Much of this time is spent in entertainment activities, but these activities are frequentlyperipheral to the use of the leisure time. Leisure involves some degree of freedom to choose,with, however social and technical restriction on the choice of activity and on the form andcontext. The implications for multimedia are that even if people buy something, they will notuse it if it does not bring them some satisfaction (Germain, 2005).In terms of technology use, unconditional leisure could be playing a video game; Relationalleisure may involve going to the pub and playing a video quiz game, watching TV as afamily, or chatting on the telephone; Role determined leisure, that related to family or work duties, could include watching television, or playing with children with a electronic game ;Compensatory and recuperative leisure may be resting from work in front of the TV or in thecinema, shopping for a treat or going out for a meal . Of course many activities will combineelements for an individual, and different people will give the activities different meaning, or
involve different freedoms. Indeed, the same activity can have a different position in thesquare at different times for the same person, and may change over time (Marich, 2005).Cinema is by far the most common and cheapest means of entertainment in cities indeveloping country like India. The maximum people can look to cinema is as an exposition of art. In a country like India, where most people are illiterate and so poor that they can ill affordany other recreation, Cinema has taken its toll. Poor, hard pressed and illiterate people findthat the cinema is the only means by which they can break the monotony and drudgery ortheir routine mundane lives. The village or urban labour class are casual about picturesbecause they do not have the time, the means or occasion to dabble with any of the luxuriesthey see on the cinema screen. However, it is the urban lower class and small children of allclasses who treat movies as something more than mere entertainers. Thus we see that theurban population is mostly influenced by the cinema (Shah, 2012).The cinema being a very important visual aid can play a vital role in educating the masses. If pictures are based on realities and deal with society evils and the like, the impressionableminds will understand life and society better, and the cinema will be playing its role. Thecinema can play a positive educative role in the spheres of photography, art, dancing andsinging and this would be a positive contribution of cinema to the teaching of all these finearts.What is discussed in the previous paragraphs is just what could be achieved by the cinema asits influence is tremendous. However, at least in India the influence is just the oppositeCinema is not at all educative in its role instead, it is only influencing impressionable mindsin the negative. That would go to mean that, the quality of our cinema is very low. Theimpressionable minds are, as expected, learning what they see in the cinema. They behave asthey see, they dress as they see and act as they see. So, the influence is undoubtedly full andcomplete but absolutely negative. This has to be because, the young and the illiterate learnand ape all of what they see as, and they do not possess the capacity to clean the hay from thechaff.Cinema can be of great utility and influence if the cinemas made are educative and provideclean entertainment, clean songs and dances of some standard. However, in India, like allother things, cinema has also become an industry highly commercialised each picture

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