develops that persists with varying degrees of viral replication, which is ahallmark of this disease.
Some of theHIV-infected adults are known to havecardiac involvement in the form of diseases of the pericardium, myocardiumand the endocardium. Although pathogenesis of cardiac involvement in HIVinfection is uncertain; autoimmunity, autonomic dysfunction and abnormalventricular growth have been proposed as the possible mechanisms
The 2 to 5 yr prevalence of symptomatic heart failure ranges from 4 to28 percent suggesting prevalence of 5 million cases of symptomatic HIVrelated heart failure
. Before the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART),clinically significant cardiac disease was unusual in the HIV-infectedpopulation and was detected in most cases only at autopsy. After theintroduction of HAART in 1996, the death rate from AIDS has decreaseddramatically
. Use of new anti retroviral therapies has provided these patientsan opportunity to live longer and healthier life. However, increasing thelongevity of life in HIV patients has uncovered many late manifestations of thedisease. Cardiovascular complication is one of these late manifestations ofHIV and is therefore becoming more prevalent. Infection with HIV is one ofthe leading causes of acquired heart disease and specifically of symptomaticheart failure. In 1996, the estimated prevalence’s of a significant cardiacmorbidity and mortality among HIV-positive patients was 6%–7% and 1%–5%,respectively
When HIV-infected patients were examined byechocardiography in the late 1980s, cardiac abnormalities were detectedmore often than would be expected from clinical symptoms and physicalexamination.
Echocardiography studies showed pericardial effusion as thecommonest cardiac manifestation
, but other studies showed