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Final Report on Chemical Equilibrium

Final Report on Chemical Equilibrium

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Published by: Kristian Vince R Pallar on Nov 11, 2012
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 Cebu Institute of Technology
 –
UniversityChemical Engineering Department
A Final Report on Chemical Equilibrium in a Liquid Phase
Kristian Jem Vince PallarEngr. Rosario Dangin
 
 
I.
 
Abstract
One of the first chemical equilibria to be studied quantitatively was thesimple esterification reaction (M, 340-2: Mo, 70-1; G and P, 308).C
2
H
5
OH + CH
3
COOH -----> CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ H
2
OAt ordinary temperatures and in the absence of a catalyst, this reactionapproaches equilibrium very slowly. Equilibrium may be attained in a reasonabletime, either by allowing the reaction mixture to stand at a high temperature, or atroom temperature in the presence of a strong acid which acts as a catalyst. Theequilibrium constant can be determined by analyzing the equilibrium mixture.In the present experiment 6M HCl is to be used as a catalyst to avoid thedanger of an explosion of the heated sealed tubes. The equilibrium is to beapproached from both directions, starting with CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
and with themixture of C
2
H
5
OH and CH
3
COOH. The equilibrium concentrations can bedetermined by using known weights of the reactants and of the standardized 6MHCl and titrating the total acid present in the equilibrium mixture. The mixturesare to be sealed in small ampules, to avoid loss by volatilization.The relatively concentrated acid which is used as a catalyst in thisexperiment, affects the equilibrium constants by changing the activity coefficientsof the reactants. A smaller value of the equilibrium constant would be obtained if the reaction were carried out in the absence of the catalyst. It is unnecessary tothermostat the reaction mixture, since the heat of the reaction is practically zeroand the equilibrium constant, is therefore, independent of temperature.
 
II.
 
Objectives
To determine the equilibrium constant.
III.
 
Apparatus and Materials
 
50 mL burette8 soft glass 25 mL test tubes500 mL of standard 1 N NaOH15 mL each of pure CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
, glacial CH
3
COOH, and absolute C
2
H
5
OH
IV.
 
ProcedurePart 1
1.
 
8 small ampules from clean dry soft glass test tubes are prepared.2.
 
5 mL of 6 M HCl is pipetted into each of the 8 tubes. 5 mL of distilledwater is added to each of the first 2 tubes. 5 mL of pure CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
isadded to the third and fourth. 3 mL of glacial CH
3
COOH and 3 mL of absolute C
2
H
5
OH is added to the fifth and sixth tube. 2 mL of glacialCH
3
COOH and 3 mL of absolute C
2
H
5
OH is added to the seventh andeighth.3.
 
The test tubes are shaken to promote the reaction.
Part 2
4.
 
Two 2 mL samples of glacial CH
3
COOH is titrated with standard 1 N forstandardization of CH
3
COOH NaOH using phenolphthalein as an indicator.
Part 3
5.
 
The contents of each tube are analyzed after 3 days.6.
 
25 mL of standard 1 N NaOH is pipetted into a small Erlenmeyer flask. Itscontents are poured into the flask.7.
 
The excess acid is titrated with 1 N NaOH. Do not attempt to obtain apermanent endpoint, since its fading is due to the saponification of theester.
V.
 
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