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Visit to singapore synchrotron light source

Visit to singapore synchrotron light source

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Published by Leon Lee
Singapore Synchrotron Light source
Singapore Synchrotron Light source

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Published by: Leon Lee on Nov 11, 2012
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07/15/2013

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SHORT PROJECT REPORT III
A VISIT TO SINGAPORE SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE
LEE ZENG HAO LEON / A0087067WCHEMISTRY / FACULTY OF SCIENCE
Introduction
The Singapore Synchrotron Light Source also known as the SSLS prides itself in being ahotbed for research, a partner of industry as well as a place for advanced education. Itmarkets itself as a user facility providing synchrotron radiation services for a growinginternational community, being a research lab and foundry for micro and nano-manufacturing using its Lithography for Micro- and Nano-manufacturing (LiMiNT)facility. It is also a research and service lab for the analytical characterization of materials and processes using its Phase Contrast Imaging and Tomography (PCIT),Surface, Interface and Nano-Structure Science (SINS), Infrared Spectro/Microscopy(ISMI), X-ray Absorbtion Facility for CAtalysis Research (XAFCA) and X-rayDevelopment and Demonstration (XDD) beamlines. On top of all that, it is a research labfor the development of advanced synchrotron light sources based on its superconductingminiundulator work.
How Does the Synchrotron Work?
FIGURE 1: OVERVIEW OF THE SSLS
 
As you can see in Figure 1 in the previous page, the SSLS is a facility that is mostlycircular in shape with many beamlines leading out from the central electron particleaccelerator. And within each of the beam lines lie powerful bending magnet that bendsthe electrons to produce the synchrotron radiation. To understand how the synchrotron
works, one must first understand what synchrotron radiation is: “High energy electrons
which are subjected to large accelerations normal to their velocity should radiate
electromagnetic energy.”
[1] That is to say, when electrons travelling at high speed(close to that of the speed of light) changes directions, they produce a type of electromagnetic radiation termed as synchrotron radiation.The Synchrotron works in a series of five steps; Firstly, electrons are produced using anelectron gun. A heated element or cathode provides the free electrons that are pulledthrough a hole in the end of the gun by a powerful electric field, producing an electronstream about as thick as the width of a strand of human hair. Secondly, the electron beamis then fed into a linear accelerator, or linac. High-energy microwaves or radiowaveschop the stream into bunches, o
r pulses. The electrons also pick up speed by “catching”
the microwaves and radiowaves. When they exit the linac, the electrons are travelling at99.99986 percent the speed of light and carry about 300 million electron volts (MeV).Thirdly, the linac then feeds into a booster ring which uses magnetic fields to force theelectrons to travel in a circle. Radio waves are used to add even more speed. The boosterring ramps up the energy in the electron streamto between 1.5 to 2.9 gigaelectron volts(GeV). This is enough energy to produce synchrotron light in the infrared to hard X-rayrange. Next, the booster ring feeds electrons into the storage ring, a many sided donut-shaped tube. The tube is maintained under a vacuum, as free as possible of air or otherstray atoms that could possible deflect the electron beam. Computer-controlled magnetskeep the beam true. Synchrotron light is produced when bending magnets deflect theelectron beam; each set of bending magnets is connected to an experimental station orbeamline. Machines filter, intensify or otherwise manipulate the light at each beamline toget the right characteristics for experiments. Finally yet importantly, keeping the electronbeam absolutely true is vital then the material one is studying is measured in billionths of a metre. The precise control is accomplished with computer controlled quadrapole (fourpole) and sextupole (six pole) magnets. Small adjustments with these magnets act tofocus the electron beam. [2]
 
Understanding magnets that change the direction of the electron pulse is also vital toknow how the synchrotron radiation is produced. There are three main types of magnets:bending magnets, undulators and the wiggler. The polarity of bending magnets face asingular direction causing the electron beam to curve and produce a white source of synchrotron radiation. The undulator is a series of magnets that are placed with analternating polarity such that the electron beam travels in a sinusoidal wavelike motionthat is orthogonal to the plane of the magnetic field, producing a partially coherentsource of synchrotron radiation that has a couple of high intensity peaks. Lastly, thewiggler is somewhat similar to the undulator in that it has a series of powerful magnetsthat are arranged with alternating polarity but in this instance, the magnets are arrangedcloser together such that the electron beam travels in a sinusoidal wavelike motion in amanner similar to that in the undulator but this time with a much shorter wavelength,producing a powerful white source of synchrotron radiation.A rather useful application of the SSLS that is of interest is the ability to do Microimaging of soft matter. Using a technique known as the X-ray Phase contrast imagingand computed totmgraphy at the PCIT, researchers are able to study aspects of biotechnology, biology (Figure 2 & 3), environmental engineering and science, materialsscience (Figure 4), micro/nanotechnology, and water technology (Figures 5
 – 
7).
FIGURE 2: Head and legs of an ant. Image size: 20×1.5mm
2
 FIGURE 3: Reconstructed 3Dimage of a honeycomb slabmade of SU-8 resist. Widthacross flats 50
μ
m, wall
thickness 10 μm, height 400μm. Image comprises976×976×728 μm
3 
FIGURE 4: Reconstructed 3Dimage of apolycaprolactonetricalciumphosphate (PCL-tCp) polymermatrix with CaP particles(red). This image of a scaffold
comprises 976×976×728 μm
3
.Reference: Innovation, Vol. 7,No. 1 (2007) 32-33

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