This paper was written by Elizabeth Brundige, Winter King, Priyneha Vahali,Stephen Vladeck, and Xiang Yuan of the Allard K. Lowenstein International HumanRights Clinic at Yale Law School. The team was supervised and the paper edited byProfessor James Silk, director of the Lowenstein Clinic. Barbara Mianzo, assistant at theSchell Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, produced the paper.Abigail Abrash Walton provided thoughtful comments on multiple drafts andcontinued guidance throughout the production of this paper. We thank Octovianus Moteand John Rumbiak for their insights into contemporary events in West Papua and theirassistance in obtaining hard-to-find sources. We are also grateful to Dr. Leslie Butt forsharing her research on the public health crisis in Papua.Finally, we acknowledge with gratitude the valuable contributions of theparticipants in a day-long roundtable discussion organized by the Lowenstein Clinic atthe Yale Law School on March 30, 2002. Joining the student authors and James Silk andDeena Hurwitz of the Lowenstein Clinic were: Abigail Abrash Walton, CarmelBudiardjo, Frank Chalk, Sukwan Hambali, Ben Kiernan, Edmund McWilliams,Octovianus Mote, Daniel Rothenberg, John Rumbiak, Joseph Saunders, and DavidWebster. Their knowledge of West Papua, Indonesia, international law, and the study of genocide generated a vibrant discussion that informed and gave shape to the questionsthis paper addresses.