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112880294 Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua

112880294 Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua

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Published by Emi Eko Elosak Weko
Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua:
Application of the Law of Genocide to the
History of Indonesian Control
Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua:
Application of the Law of Genocide to the
History of Indonesian Control

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Published by: Emi Eko Elosak Weko on Nov 12, 2012
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Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua:Application of the Law of Genocide to theHistory of Indonesian Control
A paper prepared for the Indonesia Human Rights Network By the Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights ClinicYale Law SchoolElizabeth BrundigeWinter KingPriyneha VahaliStephen Vladeck Xiang YuanApril 2004
 
 Acknowledgments
This paper was written by Elizabeth Brundige, Winter King, Priyneha Vahali,Stephen Vladeck, and Xiang Yuan of the Allard K. Lowenstein International HumanRights Clinic at Yale Law School. The team was supervised and the paper edited byProfessor James Silk, director of the Lowenstein Clinic. Barbara Mianzo, assistant at theSchell Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, produced the paper.Abigail Abrash Walton provided thoughtful comments on multiple drafts andcontinued guidance throughout the production of this paper. We thank Octovianus Moteand John Rumbiak for their insights into contemporary events in West Papua and theirassistance in obtaining hard-to-find sources. We are also grateful to Dr. Leslie Butt forsharing her research on the public health crisis in Papua.Finally, we acknowledge with gratitude the valuable contributions of theparticipants in a day-long roundtable discussion organized by the Lowenstein Clinic atthe Yale Law School on March 30, 2002. Joining the student authors and James Silk andDeena Hurwitz of the Lowenstein Clinic were: Abigail Abrash Walton, CarmelBudiardjo, Frank Chalk, Sukwan Hambali, Ben Kiernan, Edmund McWilliams,Octovianus Mote, Daniel Rothenberg, John Rumbiak, Joseph Saunders, and DavidWebster. Their knowledge of West Papua, Indonesia, international law, and the study of genocide generated a vibrant discussion that informed and gave shape to the questionsthis paper addresses.
 
Table of Contents
 I. SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 1II. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 6III. HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN WEST PAPUA ...................................... 9A. Pre-Colonial West Papua ............................................................................................. 9B. West Papua Under Dutch Colonial Rule .....................................................................10C. Indonesia’s Seizure of Power and the Act of Free Choice ..........................................14D. West Papuan Resistance and Indonesian Repression .................................................19E. Exploitation of West Papuans’ Land, Resources, and Labor ......................................26F. Renewed Military Campaigns, Rape, Torture, and Extrajudicial Killings ..................29G. Transmigration, Displacement, Disease, and Death ...................................................32H. Flight of West Papuan Refugees to Papua New Guinea .............................................36I. West Papuan Protests Against Foreign Resource Exploitation andIndonesia’s Response ................................................................................................38J. West Papua Under President Habibie: Continued Military Violence ..........................44IV. APPLICATION OF THE LAW OF GENOCIDE TO THE CASE OFWEST PAPUA ..................................................................................................................49A. Introduction to the Law of Genocide .........................................................................49B. The “Group” Element of the Crime of Genocide ......................................................541. National Group......................................................................................................552. Ethnical Group..................................................................................................... 563. Racial Group..........................................................................................................564. Religious Group....................................................................................................585. Ambit of Protection Established by the Four Enumerated Groups ......................58C. The Act Element of the Crime of Genocide ..............................................................591. Massacres and Extrajudicial Killings ...................................................................592. Torture, Disappearance, and Detention ................................................................603. Violence Against Women and Rape ....................................................................624. Resource Exploitation, Relocation of Groups, and
 
Environmental Harm ..........................................................................................635. Destruction of Property and Crops .......................................................................686. Forced Labor.........................................................................................................687. Transmigration Program .......................................................................................69D. Inferring Intent: West Papua and the Contemporary Standard .................................70V. CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................74

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