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Extrusion technology for the production of micro-aquatic feeds and shrimp feeds

Extrusion technology for the production of micro-aquatic feeds and shrimp feeds

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Nowadays we often hear startling news such as, ‘seven billionth baby born’ or ‘world population may reach 9.2 billion by 2050’ (world news, msnbc.com). Hunger is the world’s number one health risk, it kills more people than AIDS every year, one in seven people in the world will go to bed hungry tonight.
Nowadays we often hear startling news such as, ‘seven billionth baby born’ or ‘world population may reach 9.2 billion by 2050’ (world news, msnbc.com). Hunger is the world’s number one health risk, it kills more people than AIDS every year, one in seven people in the world will go to bed hungry tonight.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Nov 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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November | December 2012Extrusion technology for the production of micro-aquatic feeds and shrimp feeds
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
owadays we often hear startlingnews such as, ‘seven billionthbaby born’ or ‘world populationmay reach 9.2 billion by 2050’(world news, msnbc.com). Hunger is theworld’s number one health risk, it kills morepeople than AIDS every year, one in sevenpeople in the world will go to bed hungrytonight.
To overcome these issues, farmers mustproduce 70 percent more food by 2050 tofeed the population. But the impending crisisis that the earth may run out of food by 2050.2.4 billion extra people, no more land, howwill we feed the world in 2050?At the same time we also hear in the news that global fish consumption has hit a recordhigh. We have seen the commercial fishing trend is declining whereas aquaculture farmingis growing rapidly all over the world.Is this supply enough to feed the futurepopulation? May be not, but fish demandis growing every day all over the world. Tomaintain baseline consumption in every coun- try, 159 million tons of fish is needed to feed the world population in 2030. This demandis driven by population and income growth.If a country’s aquaculture production follows the recent trend, the expected aquaculturegrowth rate will need a four percent increaseannually. To feed a growing world population, the required aquaculture growth rate is 5.6percent annually.Some of the main challenges to achieve these goals are proper and large-scale feedproduction systems for micro aquatic feed.Recently extruder manufacturers came upwith new technologies which can solve someof the aquaculture issues related to largeand commercial-scale feed, which is the key for growth of aquaculture industry. The fun-damental components of extrusion systemshave consisted of the following items for anumber of years:1) Feed delivery system2) Preconditioning3) Extruder 4) Die and knife assembliesAlthough existing extrusion systems wereable to produce a wide range of good quality aquatic feeds (both floating and sinking), smalldiameter pellet sizes were difficult to produceat reasonable or cost-effective throughputs.Recent innovations in the basic hardwarecomponents permit smaller diameter feeds atattractive production throughputs.
Feed delivery system
Hoppers or bins are an integral part of a feeding device and are used to hold thedry ingredients above the feeders. The feeddelivery system must be able to uniformly feed both a dry and/or liquid ingredient or ablend of ingredients.Generally, when the added fat content of araw formulation exceeds 12 percent, the por- tion of fat above the 12 percent level shouldbe introduced into the extrusion system ina separate ingredient stream. The dry feedportion is delivered to the extrusion system through a specialised metering device capableof providing uniform flow at any desiredextrusion rate.Dry ingredients are usually free flowing,and there are a number of capable feedingdevices which vary in their relative costand complexity. However, gravimetric or loss-in-weight systems are necessary for thestable, precise metering of dry feed for theproduction of micro-aquatic feeds. The rawrecipe is very finely ground or pulverizedand does not possess good flow properties.The feed system must be able to handle these finely ground formulations and avoidbridging and non-uniform metering of thefeed.Automated feed delivery systems withPLC control are the norm. Slurry tanks andliquid feeding devices (pumps) are utilized toaccomplish uniform metering of liquid ingre-dients. The slurry tanks are often jacketedfor heating or cooking and are equipped withagitators as required. Positive displacementmetering pumps deliver metered liquids atconstant rates by varying length of stroke or speed of rotation. Slurries or liquids can bepremixed with dry ingredients but are prefer-ably injected into preconditioning devices or  the extruder barrel. The nutrient profile of larval feeds is critical and the precise meteringensures correct formulations.
The dry portion of the feed and theliquid portion are separately introduced intoa preconditioning device where they arecontinuously mixed, heated, and moisturisedby the injection of hot water and/or steam.The intense mixing of water and steam added to the dry feed and the ability to extend theretention time during the preconditioningphase allows the moisture level to be main- tained at an optimum.This ability to maintain optimum moisturedistribution not only initiates proper cookingbut also is reported as a significant factor in the reduction of extruder barrel wear andextruder shaft power per ton of productprocessed. The higher mixing intensity of new
Extrusion technology for theproduction of micro-aquaticfeeds and shrimp feeds
by Mian N. Riaz, Ph.D, Head of Extrusion Technology Program,Food Protein R&D Center, Texas A&M University, USA
Image courtesy of Wenger Manufacturing, USA
20 | IntnatInal
| november-December 2012
preconditioner designs improves hydrationand cooking, helping to capture the steam in the raw material. Excess steam can escape the preconditioner and create fugitive dustwhich creates housekeeping concerns in theplant environments.Better cooking with new precondition-ers gives lower product viscosities whichimproves extrudate flow through smalldie orifices. The result is smaller pelletsand more uniform pellet size. The higher mixing intensities in new preconditioner designs is the result of unique beater designs and more beater contacts per retention time.
Extruders are generally classified as either beinga single or twin-screw design. In both designs, theimpact of final product characteristics are affectedby screw and barrel profile, screw speed, process-ing conditions (temperature, moisture, etc.), rawmaterial characteristics, and die/knife selection.The feeding zone of the extruder is thatarea where the low-density discrete particlesof raw material are transported into theextruder barrel inlet. This low-density, oftenpreconditioned, material is then transportedinto the interior of the extrusion processingchamber. The flow channel of the screw is typically not filled in this zone due to theair entrapped in the incoming material. Theincoming material is compressed slightly in thiszone with the air being expelled. Water, an excellent plasticizer, is typicallinjected into the barrel in the feeding zone to facilitate textural development, viscosity development, and to enhance conductive heat transfer. The kneading zone of the cookingextruder continues the compression startedin the feeding zone, and the flow channels of  the extruder screw have a higher degree of fill.As the degree of screw fill increases andpressure begins to develop in the extruder barrel, leakage flow (flow over the outsidediameter of the screw in a direction toward the extruder inlet) and pressure flow bothincrease. The mechanism of shear does notbegin to play a dominant role until the screwflow channel is full. This full flow channelcondition begins in the kneading zone.The flow channel fills, first, with loosegranular material which is compressed andworked by shear as it passes through thekneading zone. It is in the kneading zonewhere the discrete particles of material begin to agglomerate because of their temperatureincrease resulting from conduction, directsteam injection, and viscous energy dissipa- tion. Here, the discrete particles begin to forma more integral flowing dough mass.At the dischargeend of the knead-ing zone, the extru-date most typically reaches its maxi-mum compaction.The shear in thisarea of the extruder barrel is moderateand the extrudate temperature begins to increase. Thefinal cooking zoneis that area whereamorphousizing and texturising occur.Temperature andpressure typically increase most rap-idly in this regionas shear rates arehighest because of  the extruder screwconfiguration andmaximum compres-sion of the extru-date. The pressure, temperature, andresulting fluid viscos-ity are such that theextrudate will expelfrom the extruder die to form thedesired final product texture, density, color,and functional properties.Twin-screw systems are preferred for extrusion of aquatic feeds smaller than 2mm diameter due to their positive transportand self-wiping characteristics which preventssignificant product build-up in the extruder barrel which could later dislodge and plug thesmall die orifices. The C²TX system is a co-rotating system that includes a tapered screwdiameter which de-aerates the extrudate andmakes it easier to create high density feeds for good sinking characteristics without the needfor vented barrels, pressurized density control
Image courtesy of Wenger Manufacturing, USA
november-December 2012 | IntnatInal
| 21

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